A Review of Biotic Interactions and Taxon Names Found in globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc

by Nomer and Elton, two naive review bots

[email protected]

https://globalbioticinteractions.org/contribute

https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc/issues

2024-04-17

Abstract

Life on Earth is sustained by complex interactions between organisms and their environment. These biotic interactions can be captured in datasets and published digitally. We present a review process of such an openly accessible digital interactions dataset of known origin, and discuss its outcome. The dataset under review, named globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc, is 16.1MiB in size and contains 29,323 interaction with 6 unique types of associations (e.g., hasHost) between 905 primary taxa (e.g., Aetheca wagneri) and 1,604 associated taxon (e.g., Peromyscus maniculatus). The report includes detailed summaries of interactions data as well as a taxonomic review from multiple catalogs.

Introduction

Data Review

Data review can be a time consuming process, especially when done manually. This review report aims to help facilitate data review of species interaction claims made in datasets registered with Global Biotic Interactions (Poelen, Simons, and Mungall 2014). The review includes summary statistics of, and observations about, the dataset under review:

Brigham Young University Arthropod Museum https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc/archive/4a609ac6a9a03425e2720b6cdebca6438488f029.zip 2024-04-12T23:24:08.503Z f8cf85ca8364ed1e59ec637a717733643ce827bec64958f2c487251ab7f1d966

For additional metadata related to this dataset, please visit https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc and inspect associated metadata files including, but not limited to, README.md, eml.xml, and/or globi.json.

Methods

The review is performed through programmatic scripts that leverage tools like Preston, Elton, Nomer combined with third-party tools like grep, mlr, tail and head.

Tools used in this review process
tool name version
elton 0.13.2
nomer 0.5.7
mlr 6.0.0
pandoc 3.1.6.1

The review process can be described in the form of the script below 1.

# get versioned copy of the dataset (size approx. 16.1MiB) under review 
elton pull globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc

# generate review notes
elton review globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc\
 > review.tsv

# export indexed interaction records
elton interactions globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc\
 > interactions.tsv

# export names and align them with the Catalogue of Life using Nomer 
elton names globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc\
 | nomer append col\
 > name-alignment.tsv

or visually, in a process diagram.

review origin dataset origin elton Elton (a naive review bot) elton->origin pull (1) interactions indexed interactions elton->interactions generates (2) alignment name alignments nomer Nomer (a naive review bot) nomer->interactions extract names (3) nomer->alignment generates (5) catalog name catalog nomer->catalog uses (4)

You can find a recent copy of the full review script at check-data.sh.

Results

In the following sections, the results of the review are summarized 2. Then, links to the detailed review reports are provided.

Biotic Interactions

model primaryTaxon Primary Taxon associatedTaxon Associated Taxon primaryOrganism Primary Organism primaryOrganism->primaryTaxon classifiedAs associatedOrganism Associated Organism primaryOrganism->associatedOrganism interactsWith associatedOrganism->associatedTaxon classifiedAs

In this review, biotic interactions (or biotic associations) are modeled as a primary (aka subject, source) organism interacting with an associate (aka object, target) organism. The dataset under review classified the primary/associate organisms with specific taxa. The primary and associate organisms The kind of interaction is documented as an interaction type.

The dataset under review, named globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc, is 16.1MiB in size and contains 29,323 interaction with 6 unique types of associations (e.g., hasHost) between 905 primary taxa (e.g., Aetheca wagneri) and 1,604 associated taxon (e.g., Peromyscus maniculatus).

An exhaustive list of indexed interaction claims can be found in csv and tsv archives. To facilitate discovery, the first 500 claims available on the html page at indexed-interactions.html are shown below.

The exhaustive list was used to create the following data summaries below.

Sample of Indexed Interaction Claims
sourceTaxonName interactionTypeName targetTaxonName referenceCitation
Axinopalpus biplagiatus hasHost Ex nest of Neotoma https://scan-bugs.org:443/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=14982529
Axinopalpus biplagiatus hasHost Ex nest of Neotoma https://scan-bugs.org:443/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=14982531
Axinopalpus biplagiatus hasHost Ex nest of Neotoma https://scan-bugs.org:443/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=14982534
Amara farcta interactsWith Salsola pestifer https://scan-bugs.org:443/portal/collections/individual/index.php?occid=14983553
Most Frequently Mentioned Interaction Types (up to 20 most frequent)
interactionTypeName count
hasHost 19001
interactsWith 10053
adjacentTo 228
hostOf 36
hasParasite 9
eats 1
Most Frequently Mentioned Primary Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
sourceTaxonName count
Aetheca wagneri 4684
Meringis parkeri 2722
Orchopeas sexdentatus 1045
Hoplopsyllus anomalus 885
Eumolpianus eumolpi 812
Monopsyllus wagneri wagneri 752
Thrassis pandorae 730
Spilopsyllus inaequalis 710
Thrassis bacchi 704
Atyphloceras multidentatus multidentatus 636
Oropsylla idahoensis 593
Thrassis aridis 582
Opisodasys keeni 572
Oropsylla montanus 442
Atyphloceras multidentatus 432
Anomiopsyllus amphibolus 412
Thrassis francisi 388
Odontopsyllus dentatus 361
Pogonomyrmex occidentalis 355
Most Frequently Mentioned Associate Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
targetTaxonName count
Peromyscus maniculatus 6235
Dipodomys ordii 1934
Microtus 1114
Neotoma lepida 978
Spermophilus armatus 865
Ammospermophilus leucurus 815
Spermophilus townsendii 620
Lepus californicus 487
Peromyscus Maniculatus 429
Onychomys leucogaster 396
Eutamias minimus 395
Neotoma cinerea 383
Citellus variegatus 364
Lepus Californicus 334
Citellus armatus 271
peromyscus maniculatus 254
Dipodomys ordii pallidus 239
Citellus leucurus 238
Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis 216
Most Frequent Interactions between Primary and Associate Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
sourceTaxonName interactionTypeName targetTaxonName count
Aetheca wagneri hasHost Peromyscus maniculatus 3416
Meringis parkeri hasHost Dipodomys ordii 1745
Monopsyllus wagneri wagneri interactsWith Peromyscus maniculatus 643
Atyphloceras multidentatus multidentatus hasHost Microtus 636
Aetheca wagneri interactsWith Peromyscus maniculatus 455
Thrassis pandorae hasHost Spermophilus armatus 410
Thrassis bacchi hasHost Ammospermophilus leucurus 380
Opisodasys keeni interactsWith Peromyscus maniculatus 329
Atyphloceras multidentatus hasHost Microtus 323
Aetheca wagneri hasHost Peromyscus Maniculatus 318
Anomiopsyllus amphibolus interactsWith Neotoma lepida 294
Thrassis francisi interactsWith Spermophilus townsendii 282
Oropsylla montanus hasHost Citellus variegatus 262
Oropsylla idahoensis hasHost Spermophilus armatus 235
Hoplopsyllus anomalus hasHost Ammospermophilus leucurus 233
Opisocrostis t. tuberculatus hasHost Spermophilus townsendii 219
Hoplopsyllus anomalus hasHost Citellus leucurus 218
Orchopeas sexdentatus interactsWith Neotoma cinerea 213
Monopsyllus interactsWith Peromyscus maniculatus 196

Interaction Networks

The figures below provide a graph view on the dataset under review. The first shows a summary network on the kingdom level, and the second shows how interactions on the family level. It is important to note that both network graphs were first aligned taxonomically using the Catalogue of Life. Please refer to the original (or verbatim) taxonomic names for a more original view on the interaction data.

interactions Animalia Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Plantae Plantae Animalia->Plantae Animalia->Plantae
interactions Acrididae Acrididae Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllaceae Acrididae->Zygophyllaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Acrididae->Amaranthaceae Argasidae Argasidae Alaudidae Alaudidae Argasidae->Alaudidae Bovidae Bovidae Argasidae->Bovidae Canidae Canidae Argasidae->Canidae Cervidae Cervidae Argasidae->Cervidae Cricetidae Cricetidae Argasidae->Cricetidae Diomedeidae Diomedeidae Argasidae->Diomedeidae Fringillidae Fringillidae Argasidae->Fringillidae Heteromyidae Heteromyidae Argasidae->Heteromyidae Laridae Laridae Argasidae->Laridae Leporidae Leporidae Argasidae->Leporidae Passerellidae Passerellidae Argasidae->Passerellidae Sciuridae Sciuridae Argasidae->Sciuridae Sulidae Sulidae Argasidae->Sulidae Tayassuidae Tayassuidae Argasidae->Tayassuidae Vespertilionidae Vespertilionidae Argasidae->Vespertilionidae Cricetidae->Cricetidae Cricetidae->Cricetidae Sciuridae->Sciuridae Vespertilionidae->Vespertilionidae Buprestidae Buprestidae Buprestidae->Amaranthaceae Carabidae Carabidae Carabidae->Amaranthaceae Ceratophyllidae Ceratophyllidae Ceratophyllidae->Canidae Ceratophyllidae->Canidae Ceratophyllidae->Cricetidae Ceratophyllidae->Cricetidae Ceratophyllidae->Heteromyidae Ceratophyllidae->Heteromyidae Ceratophyllidae->Leporidae Ceratophyllidae->Leporidae Ceratophyllidae->Sciuridae Ceratophyllidae->Sciuridae Ceratophyllidae->Sciuridae Ceratophyllidae->Ceratophyllidae Didelphidae Didelphidae Ceratophyllidae->Didelphidae Dipodidae Dipodidae Ceratophyllidae->Dipodidae Felidae Felidae Ceratophyllidae->Felidae Geomyidae Geomyidae Ceratophyllidae->Geomyidae Ceratophyllidae->Geomyidae Muridae Muridae Ceratophyllidae->Muridae Ceratophyllidae->Muridae Mustelidae Mustelidae Ceratophyllidae->Mustelidae Ceratophyllidae->Mustelidae Ochotonidae Ochotonidae Ceratophyllidae->Ochotonidae Ceratophyllidae->Ochotonidae Procyonidae Procyonidae Ceratophyllidae->Procyonidae Soricidae Soricidae Ceratophyllidae->Soricidae Ceratophyllidae->Soricidae Gliridae Gliridae Ceratophyllidae->Gliridae Hirundinidae Hirundinidae Ceratophyllidae->Hirundinidae Mephitidae Mephitidae Ceratophyllidae->Mephitidae Mimidae Mimidae Ceratophyllidae->Mimidae Mysidae Mysidae Ceratophyllidae->Mysidae Sittidae Sittidae Ceratophyllidae->Sittidae Tupaiidae Tupaiidae Ceratophyllidae->Tupaiidae Turdidae Turdidae Ceratophyllidae->Turdidae Chimaeropsyllidae Chimaeropsyllidae Chimaeropsyllidae->Muridae Chimaeropsyllidae->Soricidae Cicadidae Cicadidae Asteraceae Asteraceae Cicadidae->Asteraceae Coccinellidae Coccinellidae Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae Coccinellidae->Anacardiaceae Ctenophthalmidae Ctenophthalmidae Ctenophthalmidae->Cricetidae Ctenophthalmidae->Cricetidae Ctenophthalmidae->Heteromyidae Ctenophthalmidae->Heteromyidae Ctenophthalmidae->Heteromyidae Ctenophthalmidae->Leporidae Ctenophthalmidae->Leporidae Ctenophthalmidae->Sciuridae Ctenophthalmidae->Sciuridae Ctenophthalmidae->Didelphidae Ctenophthalmidae->Didelphidae Ctenophthalmidae->Dipodidae Ctenophthalmidae->Geomyidae Ctenophthalmidae->Muridae Ctenophthalmidae->Muridae Ctenophthalmidae->Mustelidae Ctenophthalmidae->Mustelidae Ctenophthalmidae->Soricidae Ctenophthalmidae->Mysidae Aplodontiidae Aplodontiidae Ctenophthalmidae->Aplodontiidae Ctenophthalmidae->Aplodontiidae Spirostreptidae Spirostreptidae Ctenophthalmidae->Spirostreptidae Strigidae Strigidae Ctenophthalmidae->Strigidae Talpidae Talpidae Ctenophthalmidae->Talpidae Erebidae Erebidae Melanthiaceae Melanthiaceae Erebidae->Melanthiaceae Eumastacidae Eumastacidae Boraginaceae Boraginaceae Eumastacidae->Boraginaceae Formicidae Formicidae Formicidae->Amaranthaceae Hesperiidae Hesperiidae Hesperiidae->Muridae Hoplopleuridae Hoplopleuridae Hoplopleuridae->Cricetidae Hoplopleuridae->Sciuridae Phrynosomatidae Phrynosomatidae Hoplopleuridae->Phrynosomatidae Hystrichopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae->Cricetidae Hystrichopsyllidae->Heteromyidae Hystrichopsyllidae->Sciuridae Hystrichopsyllidae->Muridae Hystrichopsyllidae->Soricidae Hystrichopsyllidae->Talpidae Ischnopsyllidae Ischnopsyllidae Ischnopsyllidae->Cricetidae Ischnopsyllidae->Vespertilionidae Ixodidae Ixodidae Ixodidae->Bovidae Ixodidae->Canidae Ixodidae->Cervidae Equidae Equidae Ixodidae->Equidae Hominidae Hominidae Ixodidae->Hominidae Leptopsyllidae Leptopsyllidae Leptopsyllidae->Cricetidae Leptopsyllidae->Cricetidae Leptopsyllidae->Leporidae Leptopsyllidae->Leporidae Leptopsyllidae->Felidae Leptopsyllidae->Muridae Leptopsyllidae->Muridae Leptopsyllidae->Ochotonidae Leptopsyllidae->Soricidae Leptopsyllidae->Aplodontiidae Nitidulidae Nitidulidae Nitidulidae->Anacardiaceae Octodontidae Octodontidae Octodontidae->Octodontidae Pulicidae Pulicidae Pulicidae->Canidae Pulicidae->Canidae Pulicidae->Cricetidae Pulicidae->Cricetidae Pulicidae->Heteromyidae Pulicidae->Leporidae Pulicidae->Leporidae Pulicidae->Sciuridae Pulicidae->Sciuridae Pulicidae->Vespertilionidae Pulicidae->Vespertilionidae Pulicidae->Didelphidae Pulicidae->Felidae Pulicidae->Felidae Pulicidae->Muridae Pulicidae->Muridae Pulicidae->Mustelidae Pulicidae->Procyonidae Pulicidae->Mephitidae Pulicidae->Mephitidae Pulicidae->Hominidae Erinaceidae Erinaceidae Pulicidae->Erinaceidae Eupleridae Eupleridae Pulicidae->Eupleridae Hyaenidae Hyaenidae Pulicidae->Hyaenidae Pulicidae->Hyaenidae Macroscelididae Macroscelididae Pulicidae->Macroscelididae Pulicidae->Macroscelididae Megadermatidae Megadermatidae Pulicidae->Megadermatidae Nesomyidae Nesomyidae Pulicidae->Nesomyidae Pulicidae->Nesomyidae Tenrecidae Tenrecidae Pulicidae->Tenrecidae Echimyidae Echimyidae Pulicidae->Echimyidae Herpestidae Herpestidae Pulicidae->Herpestidae Malaconotidae Malaconotidae Pulicidae->Malaconotidae Procaviidae Procaviidae Pulicidae->Procaviidae Viverridae Viverridae Pulicidae->Viverridae Rhopalopsyllidae Rhopalopsyllidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Canidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Cervidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Cricetidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Cricetidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Octodontidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Rhopalopsyllidae Caviidae Caviidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Caviidae Chinchillidae Chinchillidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Chinchillidae Cuniculidae Cuniculidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Cuniculidae Dasypodidae Dasypodidae Rhopalopsyllidae->Dasypodidae Stephanocircidae Stephanocircidae Stephanocircidae->Cricetidae Stephanocircidae->Cricetidae Stephanocircidae->Muridae Dasyuridae Dasyuridae Stephanocircidae->Dasyuridae Microbiotheriidae Microbiotheriidae Stephanocircidae->Microbiotheriidae Peramelidae Peramelidae Stephanocircidae->Peramelidae Stivaliidae Stivaliidae Stivaliidae->Sciuridae Stivaliidae->Tupaiidae Tachinidae Tachinidae Tachinidae->Geomyidae Tenebrionidae Tenebrionidae Poaceae Poaceae Tenebrionidae->Poaceae Tettigoniidae Tettigoniidae Rosaceae Rosaceae Tettigoniidae->Rosaceae Vermipsyllidae Vermipsyllidae Vermipsyllidae->Mustelidae Xiphiopsyllidae Xiphiopsyllidae Rhinolophidae Rhinolophidae Xiphiopsyllidae->Rhinolophidae Zopheridae Zopheridae Pinaceae Pinaceae Zopheridae->Pinaceae

You can download the indexed dataset under review at indexed-interactions.csv. A tab-separated file can be found at indexed-interactions.tsv

Learn more about the structure of this download at GloBI website, by opening a GitHub issue, or by sending an email.

Another way to discover the dataset under review is by searching for it on the GloBI website.

Taxonomic Alignment

As part of the review, all names are aligned against various name catalogs (e.g., col, ncbi, discoverlife, gbif, itis, wfo, mdd, tpt, and pbdb). These alignments can help review name usage or aid in selecting of a suitable taxonomic name resource.

Sample of Name Alignments
providedName relationName resolvedCatalogName resolvedName
Callopsylla caspia HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Callopsylla caspia
Callopsylla dolabris HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Callopsylla dolabris
Callopsylla sparsilis HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Callopsylla sparsilis
Chiastopsylla coraxis HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Chiastopsylla coraxis
Distribution of Taxonomic Ranks of Aligned Names by Catalog. Names that were not aligned with a catalog are counted as NAs. So, the total number of unaligned names for a catalog will be listed in their NA row.
resolvedCatalogName resolvedRank count
col NA 1433
col family 9
col genus 121
col kingdom 1
col order 2
col phylum 1
col species 597
col subfamily 1
col subgenus 20
col subspecies 42
col variety 1
discoverlife NA 2205
gbif NA 1341
gbif family 9
gbif genus 137
gbif kingdom 2
gbif order 2
gbif phylum 1
gbif species 661
gbif subspecies 58
gbif variety 1
itis NA 1686
itis family 9
itis genus 91
itis kingdom 1
itis order 2
itis phylum 1
itis species 384
itis subfamily 1
itis subgenus 1
itis subspecies 30
mdd NA 2204
ncbi NA 1573
ncbi family 9
ncbi genus 117
ncbi order 2
ncbi phylum 1
ncbi species 479
ncbi subfamily 1
ncbi subgenus 4
ncbi subspecies 23
pbdb NA 1919
pbdb family 8
pbdb genus 83
pbdb kingdom 1
pbdb order 2
pbdb phylum 1
pbdb species 189
pbdb subfamily 1
tpt NA 1636
tpt family 2
tpt genus 58
tpt order 1
tpt species 507
wfo NA 2158
wfo family 1
wfo genus 15
wfo species 28
wfo subspecies 2
wfo variety 1
Name relationship types per catalog. Name relationship type “NONE” means that a name was not recognized by the associated catalog. “SAME_AS” indicates either a “HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME” or “SYNONYM_OF” name relationship type. We recognize that “SYNONYM_OF” encompasses many types of nomenclatural synonymies (ICZN 1999) (e.g., junior synonym, senior synonyms).
resolvedCatalogName relationName count
col HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 990
col NONE 1529
col SYNONYM_OF 143
discoverlife NONE 2539
gbif HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 1071
gbif SYNONYM_OF 221
gbif NONE 1435
itis NONE 1832
itis HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 624
itis SYNONYM_OF 84
mdd NONE 2283
mdd HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 249
ncbi SAME_AS 782
ncbi NONE 1706
ncbi SYNONYM_OF 55
ncbi COMMON_NAME_OF 2
pbdb NONE 2072
pbdb HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 419
pbdb SYNONYM_OF 46
tpt SYNONYM_OF 128
tpt HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 886
tpt NONE 1759
wfo NONE 2485
wfo SYNONYM_OF 12
wfo HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 40
wfo HAS_UNCHECKED_NAME 4
List of Available Name Alignment Reports
catalog name alignment results
col associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
ncbi associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
discoverlife associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
gbif associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
itis associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
wfo associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
mdd associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
tpt associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
pbdb associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)

Additional Reviews

Elton, Nomer, and other tools may have difficulties interpreting existing species interaction datasets. Or, they may misbehave, or otherwise show unexpected behavior. As part of the review process, detailed review notes are kept that document possibly misbehaving, or confused, review bots. An sample of review notes associated with this review can be found below.

First few lines in the review notes.
reviewDate reviewCommentType reviewComment
2024-04-16T21:58:21Z note source taxon name missing: using institutionCode/collectionCode/collectionId/catalogNumber/occurrenceId as placeholder
2024-04-16T21:58:21Z note source taxon name missing: using institutionCode/collectionCode/collectionId/catalogNumber/occurrenceId as placeholder
2024-04-16T21:58:21Z note source taxon name missing: using institutionCode/collectionCode/collectionId/catalogNumber/occurrenceId as placeholder
2024-04-16T21:58:21Z note source taxon name missing: using institutionCode/collectionCode/collectionId/catalogNumber/occurrenceId as placeholder

In addtion, you can find the most frequently occurring notes in the table below.

Most frequently occurring review notes, if any.
reviewComment count
source taxon name missing: using institutionCode/collectionCode/collectionId/catalogNumber/occurrenceId as placeholder 257
found unsupported interaction type with name: [Peromyscus maniculatus sonoriensis (found] 68
found unsupported interaction type with name: [hasH] 25
found unsupported interaction type with name: [lfp] 12

For addition information on review notes, please have a look at the first 500 Review Notes or the download full csv or tsv archives.

GloBI Review Badge

As part of the review, a review badge is generated. This review badge can be included in webpages to indicate the review status of the dataset under review.

review review 💬 💬

Note that if the badge is green, no review notes were generated. If the badge is yellow, the review bots may need some help with interpreting the species interaction data.

GloBI Index Badge

If the dataset under review has been registered with GloBI, and has been succesfully indexed by GloBI, the GloBI Index Status Badge will turn green. This means that the dataset under review was indexed by GloBI and is available through GloBI services and derived data products.

Picture of a GloBI Index Badge

If you’d like to keep track of reviews or index status of the dataset under review, please visit GloBI’s dataset index 5 for badge examples.

Discussion

This review aims to provide a perspective on the dataset to aid in understanding of species interaction claims discovered. However, it is important to note that this review does not assess the quality of the dataset. Instead, it serves as an indication of the open-ness6 and FAIRness (Wilkinson et al. 2016; Trekels et al. 2023) of the dataset: to perform this review, the data was likely openly available, Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. The current Open-FAIR assessment is qualitative, and a more quantitative approach can be implemented with specified measurement units.

This report also showcases the reuse of machine-actionable (meta)data, something highly recommended by the FAIR Data Principles (Wilkinson et al. 2016). Making (meta)data machine-actionable enables more precise procesing by computers, enabling even naive review bots like Nomer and Elton to interpret the data effectively. This capability is crucial for not just automating the generation of reports, but also for facilitating seamless data exchanges, promoting interoperability.

Acknowledgements

We thank the many humans that created us and those who created and maintained the data, software and other intellectual resources that were used for producing this review. In addition, we are grateful for the natural resources providing the basis for these human and bot activities.

Author contributions

Nomer was responsible for name alignments. Elton carried out dataset extraction, and generated the review notes.

References

ICZN. 1999. “International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.” The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK. https://www.iczn.org/the-code/the-code-online/.
Poelen, Jorrit H., James D. Simons, and Chris J. Mungall. 2014. “Global Biotic Interactions: An Open Infrastructure to Share and Analyze Species-Interaction Datasets.” Ecological Informatics 24 (November): 148–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2014.08.005.
Trekels, Maarten, Debora Pignatari Drucker, José Augusto Salim, Jeff Ollerton, Jorrit Poelen, Filipi Miranda Soares, Max Rünzel, Muo Kasina, Quentin Groom, and Mariano Devoto. 2023. WorldFAIR Project (D10.1) Agriculture-related pollinator data standards use cases report.” Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8176978.
Wilkinson, Mark D., Michel Dumontier, IJsbrand Jan Aalbersberg, Gabrielle Appleton, Myles Axton, Arie Baak, Niklas Blomberg, et al. 2016. “The FAIR Guiding Principles for Scientific Data Management and Stewardship.” Scientific Data 3 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18.