A Review of Biotic Interactions and Taxon Names Found in globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar

by Nomer and Elton, two naive review bots

[email protected]

https://globalbioticinteractions.org/contribute

https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar/issues

2024-04-17

Abstract

Life on Earth is sustained by complex interactions between organisms and their environment. These biotic interactions can be captured in datasets and published digitally. We present a review process of such an openly accessible digital interactions dataset of known origin, and discuss its outcome. The dataset under review, named globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar, is 460MiB in size and contains 42,483 interaction with 5 unique types of associations (e.g., interactsWith) between 3,000 primary taxon (e.g., Hannemania) and 2,988 associated taxon (e.g., Bos taurus). The report includes detailed summaries of interactions data as well as a taxonomic review from multiple catalogs.

Introduction

Data Review

Data review can be a time consuming process, especially when done manually. This review report aims to help facilitate data review of species interaction claims made in datasets registered with Global Biotic Interactions (Poelen, Simons, and Mungall 2014). The review includes summary statistics of, and observations about, the dataset under review:

Klompen H, Johnson N (2018). Ohio State Acarology Laboratory (OSAL), Ohio State University. Museum of Biological Diversity, The Ohio State University. Accessed via https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/taxon_name/05fbf4bb-f8e1-404e-a27c-759d345aa4d0 on 2023-11-06 hash://sha256/fb23140e60f4889de35ae174b2570cf294012bff4f2c8c419c292af51c98c25f https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar/archive/eaa0ff7fa87f0217b2d1313eec7f2c9ddb0ad232.zip 2024-04-13T04:28:49.266Z 62eebaa024e3d0f525e52f18599a80dc50dc0d26c7d8474bab3152442438869b

For additional metadata related to this dataset, please visit https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar and inspect associated metadata files including, but not limited to, README.md, eml.xml, and/or globi.json.

Methods

The review is performed through programmatic scripts that leverage tools like Preston, Elton, Nomer combined with third-party tools like grep, mlr, tail and head.

Tools used in this review process
tool name version
elton 0.13.2
nomer 0.5.7
mlr 6.0.0
pandoc 3.1.6.1

The review process can be described in the form of the script below 1.

# get versioned copy of the dataset (size approx.  460MiB) under review 
elton pull globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar

# generate review notes
elton review globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar\
 > review.tsv

# export indexed interaction records
elton interactions globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar\
 > interactions.tsv

# export names and align them with the Catalogue of Life using Nomer 
elton names globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar\
 | nomer append col\
 > name-alignment.tsv

or visually, in a process diagram.

review origin dataset origin elton Elton (a naive review bot) elton->origin pull (1) interactions indexed interactions elton->interactions generates (2) alignment name alignments nomer Nomer (a naive review bot) nomer->interactions extract names (3) nomer->alignment generates (5) catalog name catalog nomer->catalog uses (4)

You can find a recent copy of the full review script at check-data.sh.

Results

In the following sections, the results of the review are summarized 2. Then, links to the detailed review reports are provided.

Biotic Interactions

model primaryTaxon Primary Taxon associatedTaxon Associated Taxon primaryOrganism Primary Organism primaryOrganism->primaryTaxon classifiedAs associatedOrganism Associated Organism primaryOrganism->associatedOrganism interactsWith associatedOrganism->associatedTaxon classifiedAs

In this review, biotic interactions (or biotic associations) are modeled as a primary (aka subject, source) organism interacting with an associate (aka object, target) organism. The dataset under review classified the primary/associate organisms with specific taxa. The primary and associate organisms The kind of interaction is documented as an interaction type.

The dataset under review, named globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar, is 460MiB in size and contains 42,483 interaction with 5 unique types of associations (e.g., interactsWith) between 3,000 primary taxon (e.g., Hannemania) and 2,988 associated taxon (e.g., Bos taurus).

An exhaustive list of indexed interaction claims can be found in csv and tsv archives. To facilitate discovery, the first 500 claims available on the html page at indexed-interactions.html are shown below.

The exhaustive list was used to create the following data summaries below.

Sample of Indexed Interaction Claims
sourceTaxonName interactionTypeName targetTaxonName referenceCitation
Cheiroseius aciculatus interactsWith Bambusa https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/collecting_units/0eae5d09-bf7b-3aaa-e053-0100007f2cc9
Cheiroseius aciculatus interactsWith Eucalyptus https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/collecting_units/0eae5d09-bf7b-3aaa-e053-0100007f2cc9
Cheiroseius browningi interactsWith Pinus https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/collecting_units/0eae5d09-bf7c-3aaa-e053-0100007f2cc9
Cheiroseius browningi interactsWith Pinus https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/collecting_units/0eae5d09-bf80-3aaa-e053-0100007f2cc9
Most Frequently Mentioned Interaction Types (up to 20 most frequent)
interactionTypeName count
interactsWith 21617
parasiteOf 19229
eats 1598
preysOn 42
coRoostsWith 1
Most Frequently Mentioned Primary Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
sourceTaxonName count
Hannemania 1568
Euschoengastia peromysci 856
Euschoengastia brevipes 787
Uropodina 695
Trombiculidae 674
Harpirhynchidae 631
Uropodidae 618
Euschoengastia setosa 612
Harpirhynchus 598
Amblyomma testudinarium 567
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum 547
Boophilus microplus 505
Tarsonemus krantzi 390
Hyalomma 340
Dermacentor variabilis 337
Parasitidae 323
Rhipicephalus sanguineus 313
Insectolaelaps quadrisetus 311
Hyalomma dromedarii 292
Most Frequently Mentioned Associate Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
targetTaxonName count
Bos taurus 1233
Peromyscus 1009
Peromyscus leucopus 968
Pinus 853
Lithobates pipiens 852
Quercus 817
Pinus taeda 734
Myodes 726
Myodes gapperi 707
Sus scrofa 697
Bubalus bubalis 610
Dendroctonus frontalis 428
Equus caballus 423
Mus musculus 418
Capra hircus 323
Ovis aries 308
Bambusa 304
Canis lupus 283
Ips typographus 280
Most Frequent Interactions between Primary and Associate Taxa (up to 20 most frequent)
sourceTaxonName interactionTypeName targetTaxonName count
Hannemania parasiteOf Lithobates pipiens 705
Euschoengastia brevipes parasiteOf Myodes 551
Euschoengastia setosa parasiteOf Peromyscus leucopus 365
Trombiculidae parasiteOf Myodes gapperi 350
Amblyomma testudinarium parasiteOf Sus scrofa 344
Boophilus microplus parasiteOf Bos taurus 286
Myobia murismusculi parasiteOf Mus musculus 251
Insectolaelaps quadrisetus interactsWith Ips typographus 245
Euschoengastia setosa interactsWith Peromyscus 241
Euschoengastia peromysci parasiteOf Myodes gapperi 239
Euschoengastia peromysci interactsWith Peromyscus 198
Tarsonemus krantzi interactsWith Dendroctonus frontalis 195
Tarsonemus krantzi interactsWith Pinus taeda 195
Galendromus occidentalis interactsWith Vitis vinifera 183
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum parasiteOf Bubalus bubalis 174
Euschoengastia peromysci parasiteOf Peromyscus leucopus 167
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum parasiteOf Bos taurus 166
Neotrombicula japonica parasiteOf Apodemus agrarius 161
Bdellorhynchus interactsWith Anas clypeata 158

Interaction Networks

The figures below provide a graph view on the dataset under review. The first shows a summary network on the kingdom level, and the second shows how interactions on the family level. It is important to note that both network graphs were first aligned taxonomically using the Catalogue of Life. Please refer to the original (or verbatim) taxonomic names for a more original view on the interaction data.

interactions Animalia Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Animalia->Animalia Plantae Plantae Animalia->Plantae Animalia->Plantae Animalia->Plantae Chromista Chromista Animalia->Chromista Fungi Fungi Animalia->Fungi Animalia->Fungi Plantae->Animalia Plantae->Plantae
interactions Acaridae Acaridae Archotermopsidae Archotermopsidae Acaridae->Archotermopsidae Asteraceae Asteraceae Acaridae->Asteraceae Betulaceae Betulaceae Acaridae->Betulaceae Buprestidae Buprestidae Acaridae->Buprestidae Erebidae Erebidae Acaridae->Erebidae Formicidae Formicidae Acaridae->Formicidae Leporidae Leporidae Acaridae->Leporidae Muridae Muridae Acaridae->Muridae Pinaceae Pinaceae Acaridae->Pinaceae Spirostreptidae Spirostreptidae Acaridae->Spirostreptidae Trogidae Trogidae Acaridae->Trogidae Tyrannidae Tyrannidae Acaridae->Tyrannidae Adamystidae Adamystidae Adamystidae->Pinaceae Algophagidae Algophagidae Fagaceae Fagaceae Algophagidae->Fagaceae Moraceae Moraceae Algophagidae->Moraceae Allothyridae Allothyridae Myrtaceae Myrtaceae Allothyridae->Myrtaceae Alycidae Alycidae Alycidae->Pinaceae Alycidae->Fagaceae Alycidae->Myrtaceae Casuarinaceae Casuarinaceae Alycidae->Casuarinaceae Cupressaceae Cupressaceae Alycidae->Cupressaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae Alycidae->Salicaceae Sapindaceae Sapindaceae Alycidae->Sapindaceae Sphagnaceae Sphagnaceae Alycidae->Sphagnaceae Poaceae Poaceae Sapindaceae->Poaceae Arecaceae Arecaceae Sapindaceae->Arecaceae Ameroseiidae Ameroseiidae Ameroseiidae->Erebidae Ameroseiidae->Leporidae Ameroseiidae->Muridae Ameroseiidae->Pinaceae Ameroseiidae->Trogidae Ameroseiidae->Fagaceae Ameroseiidae->Cupressaceae Ameroseiidae->Salicaceae Cricetidae Cricetidae Ameroseiidae->Cricetidae Curculionidae Curculionidae Ameroseiidae->Curculionidae Equidae Equidae Ameroseiidae->Equidae Malvaceae Malvaceae Ameroseiidae->Malvaceae Ameroseiidae->Poaceae Polyporaceae Polyporaceae Ameroseiidae->Polyporaceae Vespertilionidae Vespertilionidae Ameroseiidae->Vespertilionidae Analgidae Analgidae Alaudidae Alaudidae Analgidae->Alaudidae Bombycillidae Bombycillidae Analgidae->Bombycillidae Carabidae Carabidae Analgidae->Carabidae Hirundinidae Hirundinidae Analgidae->Hirundinidae Icteridae Icteridae Analgidae->Icteridae Mimidae Mimidae Analgidae->Mimidae Passeridae Passeridae Analgidae->Passeridae Phasianidae Phasianidae Analgidae->Phasianidae Rallidae Rallidae Analgidae->Rallidae Scolopacidae Scolopacidae Analgidae->Scolopacidae Anystidae Anystidae Anystidae->Formicidae Anystidae->Pinaceae Anystidae->Fagaceae Anystidae->Sapindaceae Altingiaceae Altingiaceae Anystidae->Altingiaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Anystidae->Fabaceae Vitaceae Vitaceae Anystidae->Vitaceae Fabaceae->Scolopacidae Argasidae Argasidae Argasidae->Leporidae Argasidae->Muridae Argasidae->Muridae Argasidae->Cricetidae Argasidae->Equidae Argasidae->Vespertilionidae Argasidae->Hirundinidae Argasidae->Phasianidae Argasidae->Phasianidae Argasidae->Fabaceae Accipitridae Accipitridae Argasidae->Accipitridae Argasidae->Accipitridae Ardeidae Ardeidae Argasidae->Ardeidae Argasidae->Ardeidae Bovidae Bovidae Argasidae->Bovidae Argasidae->Bovidae Cervidae Cervidae Argasidae->Cervidae Argasidae->Cervidae Columbidae Columbidae Argasidae->Columbidae Argasidae->Columbidae Erinaceidae Erinaceidae Argasidae->Erinaceidae Argasidae->Erinaceidae Geomyidae Geomyidae Argasidae->Geomyidae Hominidae Hominidae Argasidae->Hominidae Argasidae->Hominidae Laridae Laridae Argasidae->Laridae Noctilionidae Noctilionidae Argasidae->Noctilionidae Argasidae->Noctilionidae Sciuridae Sciuridae Argasidae->Sciuridae Suidae Suidae Argasidae->Suidae Asparagaceae Asparagaceae Argasidae->Asparagaceae Camelidae Camelidae Argasidae->Camelidae Corvidae Corvidae Argasidae->Corvidae Emballonuridae Emballonuridae Argasidae->Emballonuridae Mormoopidae Mormoopidae Argasidae->Mormoopidae Nycteridae Nycteridae Argasidae->Nycteridae Phyllostomidae Phyllostomidae Argasidae->Phyllostomidae Pteropodidae Pteropodidae Argasidae->Pteropodidae Viperidae Viperidae Argasidae->Viperidae Arrenuridae Arrenuridae Culicidae Culicidae Arrenuridae->Culicidae Ascidae Ascidae Ascidae->Betulaceae Ascidae->Formicidae Ascidae->Leporidae Ascidae->Pinaceae Ascidae->Fagaceae Ascidae->Myrtaceae Ascidae->Casuarinaceae Ascidae->Cupressaceae Ascidae->Salicaceae Ascidae->Sapindaceae Ascidae->Equidae Ascidae->Malvaceae Ascidae->Poaceae Ascidae->Polyporaceae Ascidae->Icteridae Ascidae->Altingiaceae Ascidae->Fabaceae Ascidae->Bovidae Ascidae->Cervidae Ascidae->Asparagaceae Ascidae->Arecaceae Bromeliaceae Bromeliaceae Ascidae->Bromeliaceae Cactaceae Cactaceae Ascidae->Cactaceae Caprifoliaceae Caprifoliaceae Ascidae->Caprifoliaceae Cornaceae Cornaceae Ascidae->Cornaceae Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitaceae Ascidae->Cucurbitaceae Cyatheaceae Cyatheaceae Ascidae->Cyatheaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Ascidae->Cyperaceae Diaspididae Diaspididae Ascidae->Diaspididae Ascidae->Diaspididae Equisetaceae Equisetaceae Ascidae->Equisetaceae Ericaceae Ericaceae Ascidae->Ericaceae Histeridae Histeridae Ascidae->Histeridae Juglandaceae Juglandaceae Ascidae->Juglandaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Ascidae->Lamiaceae Liliaceae Liliaceae Ascidae->Liliaceae Limoniidae Limoniidae Ascidae->Limoniidae Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiaceae Ascidae->Lycopodiaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Ascidae->Magnoliaceae Mycetophilidae Mycetophilidae Ascidae->Mycetophilidae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Ascidae->Orchidaceae Parulidae Parulidae Ascidae->Parulidae Pelecanidae Pelecanidae Ascidae->Pelecanidae Phytoseiidae Phytoseiidae Ascidae->Phytoseiidae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Ascidae->Polygonaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Ascidae->Rosaceae Rutaceae Rutaceae Ascidae->Rutaceae Sarraceniaceae Sarraceniaceae Ascidae->Sarraceniaceae Spirobolidae Spirobolidae Ascidae->Spirobolidae Urticaceae Urticaceae Ascidae->Urticaceae Verbenaceae Verbenaceae Ascidae->Verbenaceae Amaryllidaceae Amaryllidaceae Diaspididae->Amaryllidaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Diaspididae->Apiaceae Phytoseiidae->Asteraceae Phytoseiidae->Betulaceae Phytoseiidae->Formicidae Phytoseiidae->Leporidae Phytoseiidae->Muridae Phytoseiidae->Pinaceae Phytoseiidae->Trogidae Phytoseiidae->Fagaceae Phytoseiidae->Moraceae Phytoseiidae->Myrtaceae Phytoseiidae->Cupressaceae Phytoseiidae->Salicaceae Phytoseiidae->Sapindaceae Phytoseiidae->Cricetidae Phytoseiidae->Curculionidae Phytoseiidae->Equidae Phytoseiidae->Malvaceae Phytoseiidae->Poaceae Phytoseiidae->Polyporaceae Phytoseiidae->Icteridae Phytoseiidae->Mimidae Phytoseiidae->Passeridae Phytoseiidae->Altingiaceae Phytoseiidae->Fabaceae Phytoseiidae->Vitaceae Phytoseiidae->Cervidae Phytoseiidae->Sciuridae Phytoseiidae->Arecaceae Phytoseiidae->Ericaceae Phytoseiidae->Juglandaceae Phytoseiidae->Lamiaceae Phytoseiidae->Parulidae Phytoseiidae->Rosaceae Phytoseiidae->Rutaceae Phytoseiidae->Sarraceniaceae Passerellidae Passerellidae Phytoseiidae->Passerellidae Musaceae Musaceae Phytoseiidae->Musaceae Fringillidae Fringillidae Phytoseiidae->Fringillidae Lythraceae Lythraceae Phytoseiidae->Lythraceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Phytoseiidae->Solanaceae Theaceae Theaceae Phytoseiidae->Theaceae Araucariaceae Araucariaceae Phytoseiidae->Araucariaceae Phytoseiidae->Apiaceae Oleaceae Oleaceae Phytoseiidae->Oleaceae Tetranychidae Tetranychidae Phytoseiidae->Tetranychidae Phytoseiidae->Tetranychidae Aleyrodidae Aleyrodidae Phytoseiidae->Aleyrodidae Cardinalidae Cardinalidae Phytoseiidae->Cardinalidae Cannabaceae Cannabaceae Phytoseiidae->Cannabaceae Soricidae Soricidae Phytoseiidae->Soricidae Viburnaceae Viburnaceae Phytoseiidae->Viburnaceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Phytoseiidae->Lauraceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Phytoseiidae->Amaranthaceae Caricaceae Caricaceae Phytoseiidae->Caricaceae Cephalotaxaceae Cephalotaxaceae Phytoseiidae->Cephalotaxaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Phytoseiidae->Commelinaceae Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae Phytoseiidae->Convolvulaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Phytoseiidae->Euphorbiaceae Glossinidae Glossinidae Phytoseiidae->Glossinidae Phytolaccaceae Phytolaccaceae Phytoseiidae->Phytolaccaceae Pseudococcidae Pseudococcidae Phytoseiidae->Pseudococcidae Rhamnaceae Rhamnaceae Phytoseiidae->Rhamnaceae Violaceae Violaceae Phytoseiidae->Violaceae Atopomelidae Atopomelidae Atopomelidae->Muridae Callitrichidae Callitrichidae Atopomelidae->Callitrichidae Caviidae Caviidae Atopomelidae->Caviidae Lemuridae Lemuridae Atopomelidae->Lemuridae Avenzoariidae Avenzoariidae Charadriidae Charadriidae Avenzoariidae->Charadriidae Pandionidae Pandionidae Avenzoariidae->Pandionidae Bdellidae Bdellidae Bdellidae->Asteraceae Bdellidae->Betulaceae Bdellidae->Leporidae Bdellidae->Muridae Bdellidae->Pinaceae Bdellidae->Fagaceae Bdellidae->Cupressaceae Bdellidae->Sapindaceae Bdellidae->Sphagnaceae Bdellidae->Cricetidae Bdellidae->Hirundinidae Bdellidae->Bromeliaceae Bdellidae->Ericaceae Bdellidae->Orchidaceae Araceae Araceae Bdellidae->Araceae Buxaceae Buxaceae Bdellidae->Buxaceae Bdellidae->Passerellidae Picidae Picidae Bdellidae->Picidae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Bdellidae->Scrophulariaceae Turdidae Turdidae Bdellidae->Turdidae Zygophyllaceae Zygophyllaceae Bdellidae->Zygophyllaceae Chironomidae Chironomidae Bdellidae->Chironomidae Blattisociidae Blattisociidae Blattisociidae->Asteraceae Blattisociidae->Erebidae Blattisociidae->Muridae Blattisociidae->Pinaceae Blattisociidae->Fagaceae Blattisociidae->Myrtaceae Blattisociidae->Sapindaceae Blattisociidae->Curculionidae Blattisociidae->Equidae Blattisociidae->Malvaceae Blattisociidae->Poaceae Blattisociidae->Polyporaceae Blattisociidae->Vitaceae Blattisociidae->Cervidae Blattisociidae->Suidae Blattisociidae->Culicidae Blattisociidae->Cyperaceae Blattisociidae->Rutaceae Blattisociidae->Amaryllidaceae Bombycidae Bombycidae Blattisociidae->Bombycidae Cerambycidae Cerambycidae Blattisociidae->Cerambycidae Dermestidae Dermestidae Blattisociidae->Dermestidae Dryophthoridae Dryophthoridae Blattisociidae->Dryophthoridae Blattisociidae->Musaceae Scarabaeidae Scarabaeidae Blattisociidae->Scarabaeidae Tenebrionidae Tenebrionidae Blattisociidae->Tenebrionidae Calliphoridae Calliphoridae Blattisociidae->Calliphoridae Noctuidae Noctuidae Blattisociidae->Noctuidae Notodontidae Notodontidae Blattisociidae->Notodontidae Tineidae Tineidae Blattisociidae->Tineidae Caeculidae Caeculidae Caeculidae->Asteraceae Calyptostomatidae Calyptostomatidae Calyptostomatidae->Myrtaceae Calyptostomatidae->Orchidaceae Tipulidae Tipulidae Calyptostomatidae->Tipulidae Calyptostomatidae->Tipulidae Camerobiidae Camerobiidae Myricaceae Myricaceae Camerobiidae->Myricaceae Canestriniidae Canestriniidae Canestriniidae->Scarabaeidae Passalidae Passalidae Canestriniidae->Passalidae Carpoglyphidae Carpoglyphidae Carpoglyphidae->Rosaceae Apidae Apidae Carpoglyphidae->Apidae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Carpoglyphidae->Rubiaceae Chaetodactylidae Chaetodactylidae Chaetodactylidae->Asparagaceae Chaetodactylidae->Apidae Megachilidae Megachilidae Chaetodactylidae->Megachilidae Cheyletidae Cheyletidae Cheyletidae->Leporidae Cheyletidae->Muridae Cheyletidae->Tyrannidae Cheyletidae->Fagaceae Cheyletidae->Cricetidae Cheyletidae->Curculionidae Cheyletidae->Equidae Cheyletidae->Poaceae Cheyletidae->Polyporaceae Cheyletidae->Hirundinidae Cheyletidae->Hirundinidae Cheyletidae->Icteridae Cheyletidae->Passeridae Cheyletidae->Phasianidae Cheyletidae->Fabaceae Cheyletidae->Bovidae Cheyletidae->Sciuridae Cheyletidae->Orchidaceae Cheyletidae->Rutaceae Cheyletidae->Picidae Cheyletidae->Turdidae Cheyletidae->Amaryllidaceae Cheyletidae->Dermestidae Cheyletidae->Apidae Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae Cheyletidae->Anacardiaceae Apodidae Apodidae Cheyletidae->Apodidae Dermanyssidae Dermanyssidae Cheyletidae->Dermanyssidae Cheyletidae->Fringillidae Hippoboscidae Hippoboscidae Cheyletidae->Hippoboscidae Iridaceae Iridaceae Cheyletidae->Iridaceae Juncaceae Juncaceae Cheyletidae->Juncaceae Cheyletidae->Lythraceae Molossidae Molossidae Cheyletidae->Molossidae Cheyletidae->Solanaceae Cheyletidae->Theaceae Tingidae Tingidae Cheyletidae->Tingidae Canidae Canidae Cheyletidae->Canidae Dermanyssidae->Muridae Dermanyssidae->Cricetidae Dermanyssidae->Vespertilionidae Dermanyssidae->Alaudidae Dermanyssidae->Hirundinidae Dermanyssidae->Hirundinidae Dermanyssidae->Icteridae Dermanyssidae->Passeridae Dermanyssidae->Passeridae Dermanyssidae->Phasianidae Dermanyssidae->Phasianidae Dermanyssidae->Columbidae Dermanyssidae->Hominidae Dermanyssidae->Picidae Dermanyssidae->Picidae Dermanyssidae->Turdidae Dermanyssidae->Fringillidae Psittacidae Psittacidae Dermanyssidae->Psittacidae Troglodytidae Troglodytidae Dermanyssidae->Troglodytidae Vireonidae Vireonidae Dermanyssidae->Vireonidae Alcidae Alcidae Dermanyssidae->Alcidae Chirodiscidae Chirodiscidae Chirodiscidae->Vespertilionidae Chirodiscidae->Callitrichidae Chrysochloridae Chrysochloridae Chirodiscidae->Chrysochloridae Rhinolophidae Rhinolophidae Chirodiscidae->Rhinolophidae Chyzeriidae Chyzeriidae Chyzeriidae->Araucariaceae Nothofagaceae Nothofagaceae Chyzeriidae->Nothofagaceae Cloacaridae Cloacaridae Cheloniidae Cheloniidae Cloacaridae->Cheloniidae Chelydridae Chelydridae Cloacaridae->Chelydridae Cocceupodidae Cocceupodidae Cocceupodidae->Betulaceae Cocceupodidae->Pinaceae Cocceupodidae->Cupressaceae Cocceupodidae->Orchidaceae Cocceupodidae->Rosaceae Cornirostridae Cornirostridae Cornirostridae->Pandionidae Cryptognathidae Cryptognathidae Cryptognathidae->Fagaceae Cunaxidae Cunaxidae Cunaxidae->Asteraceae Cunaxidae->Formicidae Cunaxidae->Leporidae Cunaxidae->Muridae Cunaxidae->Pinaceae Cunaxidae->Fagaceae Cunaxidae->Salicaceae Cunaxidae->Sphagnaceae Cunaxidae->Cricetidae Cunaxidae->Polyporaceae Cunaxidae->Icteridae Cunaxidae->Arecaceae Cunaxidae->Bromeliaceae Cunaxidae->Cyperaceae Cunaxidae->Orchidaceae Cunaxidae->Sarraceniaceae Bignoniaceae Bignoniaceae Cunaxidae->Bignoniaceae Caryophyllaceae Caryophyllaceae Cunaxidae->Caryophyllaceae Cunaxidae->Psittacidae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Cunaxidae->Zingiberaceae Demodecidae Demodecidae Demodecidae->Muridae Demodecidae->Cricetidae Demodecidae->Vespertilionidae Demodecidae->Bovidae Demodecidae->Hominidae Demodecidae->Phyllostomidae Demodecidae->Molossidae Demodecidae->Canidae Dasypodidae Dasypodidae Demodecidae->Dasypodidae Felidae Felidae Demodecidae->Felidae Phocidae Phocidae Demodecidae->Phocidae Ursidae Ursidae Demodecidae->Ursidae Diarthrophallidae Diarthrophallidae Diarthrophallidae->Trogidae Diarthrophallidae->Passalidae Digamasellidae Digamasellidae Digamasellidae->Leporidae Digamasellidae->Pinaceae Digamasellidae->Fagaceae Digamasellidae->Cupressaceae Digamasellidae->Sapindaceae Digamasellidae->Curculionidae Digamasellidae->Rosaceae Digamasellidae->Scarabaeidae Digamasellidae->Passalidae Digamasellidae->Tingidae Digamasellidae->Oleaceae Entonyssidae Entonyssidae Entonyssidae->Viperidae Colubridae Colubridae Entonyssidae->Colubridae Homalopsidae Homalopsidae Entonyssidae->Homalopsidae Psammophiidae Psammophiidae Entonyssidae->Psammophiidae Epidermoptidae Epidermoptidae Epidermoptidae->Icteridae Epidermoptidae->Hippoboscidae Sturnidae Sturnidae Epidermoptidae->Sturnidae Ereynetidae Ereynetidae Ereynetidae->Formicidae Ereynetidae->Pinaceae Ereynetidae->Salicaceae Ereynetidae->Malvaceae Ereynetidae->Icteridae Ereynetidae->Apodidae Sapotaceae Sapotaceae Ereynetidae->Sapotaceae Eriophyidae Eriophyidae Eriophyidae->Fagaceae Eriophyidae->Salicaceae Eriophyidae->Sapindaceae Eriophyidae->Poaceae Eriophyidae->Vitaceae Eriophyidae->Cornaceae Eriophyidae->Juglandaceae Eriophyidae->Rosaceae Eriophyidae->Tingidae Eriophyidae->Oleaceae Ulmaceae Ulmaceae Eriophyidae->Ulmaceae Erythraeidae Erythraeidae Erythraeidae->Asteraceae Erythraeidae->Betulaceae Erythraeidae->Formicidae Erythraeidae->Muridae Erythraeidae->Pinaceae Erythraeidae->Salicaceae Erythraeidae->Sapindaceae Erythraeidae->Malvaceae Erythraeidae->Culicidae Erythraeidae->Caprifoliaceae Erythraeidae->Parulidae Erythraeidae->Rosaceae Erythraeidae->Buxaceae Erythraeidae->Scarabaeidae Erythraeidae->Tenebrionidae Erythraeidae->Noctuidae Erythraeidae->Noctuidae Erythraeidae->Tipulidae Erythraeidae->Nothofagaceae Erythraeidae->Tetranychidae Cicadellidae Cicadellidae Erythraeidae->Cicadellidae Cicadidae Cicadidae Erythraeidae->Cicadidae Delphacidae Delphacidae Erythraeidae->Delphacidae Erythraeidae->Aleyrodidae Tetranychidae->Asteraceae Tetranychidae->Asteraceae Tetranychidae->Betulaceae Tetranychidae->Formicidae Tetranychidae->Leporidae Tetranychidae->Pinaceae Tetranychidae->Pinaceae Tetranychidae->Fagaceae Tetranychidae->Fagaceae Tetranychidae->Moraceae Tetranychidae->Myrtaceae Tetranychidae->Cupressaceae Tetranychidae->Salicaceae Tetranychidae->Sapindaceae Tetranychidae->Sapindaceae Tetranychidae->Cricetidae Tetranychidae->Equidae Tetranychidae->Malvaceae Tetranychidae->Poaceae Tetranychidae->Poaceae Tetranychidae->Icteridae Tetranychidae->Altingiaceae Tetranychidae->Fabaceae Tetranychidae->Vitaceae Tetranychidae->Asparagaceae Tetranychidae->Arecaceae Tetranychidae->Bromeliaceae Tetranychidae->Bromeliaceae Tetranychidae->Caprifoliaceae Tetranychidae->Cornaceae Tetranychidae->Cucurbitaceae Tetranychidae->Cyperaceae Tetranychidae->Ericaceae Tetranychidae->Juglandaceae Tetranychidae->Lamiaceae Tetranychidae->Liliaceae Tetranychidae->Magnoliaceae Tetranychidae->Orchidaceae Tetranychidae->Rosaceae Tetranychidae->Rosaceae Tetranychidae->Rutaceae Tetranychidae->Rutaceae Tetranychidae->Verbenaceae Tetranychidae->Buxaceae Tetranychidae->Scrophulariaceae Tetranychidae->Zygophyllaceae Tetranychidae->Amaryllidaceae Tetranychidae->Anacardiaceae Tetranychidae->Solanaceae Tetranychidae->Theaceae Tetranychidae->Bignoniaceae Tetranychidae->Caryophyllaceae Tetranychidae->Apiaceae Tetranychidae->Oleaceae Tetranychidae->Ulmaceae Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Tetranychidae->Brassicaceae Tetranychidae->Cannabaceae Apocynaceae Apocynaceae Tetranychidae->Apocynaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Tetranychidae->Araliaceae Hydrangeaceae Hydrangeaceae Tetranychidae->Hydrangeaceae Tetranychidae->Viburnaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Tetranychidae->Balsaminaceae Tetranychidae->Lauraceae Tetranychidae->Amaranthaceae Tetranychidae->Caricaceae Tetranychidae->Convolvulaceae Tetranychidae->Euphorbiaceae Tetranychidae->Rhamnaceae Tetranychidae->Violaceae Podocarpaceae Podocarpaceae Tetranychidae->Podocarpaceae Adelgidae Adelgidae Tetranychidae->Adelgidae Plantaginaceae Plantaginaceae Tetranychidae->Plantaginaceae Alcyoniidae Alcyoniidae Tetranychidae->Alcyoniidae Aphrophoridae Aphrophoridae Tetranychidae->Aphrophoridae Aquifoliaceae Aquifoliaceae Tetranychidae->Aquifoliaceae Berberidaceae Berberidaceae Tetranychidae->Berberidaceae Boraginaceae Boraginaceae Tetranychidae->Boraginaceae Capparaceae Capparaceae Tetranychidae->Capparaceae Combretaceae Combretaceae Tetranychidae->Combretaceae Ehretiaceae Ehretiaceae Tetranychidae->Ehretiaceae Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnaceae Tetranychidae->Elaeagnaceae Meliaceae Meliaceae Tetranychidae->Meliaceae Not assigned Not assigned Tetranychidae->Not assigned Nyctaginaceae Nyctaginaceae Tetranychidae->Nyctaginaceae Onagraceae Onagraceae Tetranychidae->Onagraceae Oxalidaceae Oxalidaceae Tetranychidae->Oxalidaceae Papaveraceae Papaveraceae Tetranychidae->Papaveraceae Phaseolidae Phaseolidae Tetranychidae->Phaseolidae Piperaceae Piperaceae Tetranychidae->Piperaceae Tetranychidae->Piperaceae Psilostomidae Psilostomidae Tetranychidae->Psilostomidae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Tetranychidae->Ranunculaceae Ricinidae Ricinidae Tetranychidae->Ricinidae Taxaceae Taxaceae Tetranychidae->Taxaceae Velloziaceae Velloziaceae Tetranychidae->Velloziaceae Eupodidae Eupodidae Eupodidae->Betulaceae Eupodidae->Formicidae Eupodidae->Pinaceae Eupodidae->Fagaceae Eupodidae->Myrtaceae Eupodidae->Salicaceae Eupodidae->Sphagnaceae Eupodidae->Cricetidae Eupodidae->Mimidae Eupodidae->Liliaceae Eupodidae->Parulidae Eupodidae->Rosaceae Eupodidae->Turdidae Eupodidae->Oleaceae Eustathiidae Eustathiidae Eustathiidae->Apodidae Eviphididae Eviphididae Eviphididae->Fagaceae Eviphididae->Bovidae Erotylidae Erotylidae Eviphididae->Erotylidae Geotrupidae Geotrupidae Eviphididae->Geotrupidae Eylaidae Eylaidae Hydrophilidae Hydrophilidae Eylaidae->Hydrophilidae Freyanidae Freyanidae Anatidae Anatidae Freyanidae->Anatidae Glycyphagidae Glycyphagidae Glycyphagidae->Erebidae Glycyphagidae->Muridae Glycyphagidae->Sapindaceae Glycyphagidae->Vespertilionidae Glycyphagidae->Sciuridae Halacaridae Halacaridae Sipunculidae Sipunculidae Halacaridae->Sipunculidae Halarachnidae Halarachnidae Halarachnidae->Canidae Halarachnidae->Phocidae Cercopithecidae Cercopithecidae Halarachnidae->Cercopithecidae Mustelidae Mustelidae Halarachnidae->Mustelidae Otariidae Otariidae Halarachnidae->Otariidae Halolaelapidae Halolaelapidae Halolaelapidae->Cricetidae Halolaelapidae->Equidae Halolaelapidae->Poaceae Halolaelapidae->Bovidae Halolaelapidae->Cervidae Harpirhynchidae Harpirhynchidae Harpirhynchidae->Asteraceae Harpirhynchidae->Tyrannidae Harpirhynchidae->Alaudidae Harpirhynchidae->Bombycillidae Harpirhynchidae->Hirundinidae Harpirhynchidae->Icteridae Harpirhynchidae->Mimidae Harpirhynchidae->Passeridae Harpirhynchidae->Phasianidae Harpirhynchidae->Scolopacidae Harpirhynchidae->Accipitridae Harpirhynchidae->Ardeidae Harpirhynchidae->Columbidae Harpirhynchidae->Sciuridae Harpirhynchidae->Corvidae Harpirhynchidae->Parulidae Harpirhynchidae->Charadriidae Harpirhynchidae->Passerellidae Harpirhynchidae->Picidae Harpirhynchidae->Turdidae Harpirhynchidae->Apodidae Harpirhynchidae->Fringillidae Harpirhynchidae->Psittacidae Harpirhynchidae->Felidae Harpirhynchidae->Troglodytidae Harpirhynchidae->Vireonidae Harpirhynchidae->Colubridae Harpirhynchidae->Sturnidae Tupaiidae Tupaiidae Harpirhynchidae->Tupaiidae Aegithalidae Aegithalidae Harpirhynchidae->Aegithalidae Artamidae Artamidae Harpirhynchidae->Artamidae Caprimulgidae Caprimulgidae Harpirhynchidae->Caprimulgidae Harpirhynchidae->Cardinalidae Certhiidae Certhiidae Harpirhynchidae->Certhiidae Coliidae Coliidae Harpirhynchidae->Coliidae Cuculidae Cuculidae Harpirhynchidae->Cuculidae Emberizidae Emberizidae Harpirhynchidae->Emberizidae Estrildidae Estrildidae Harpirhynchidae->Estrildidae Locustellidae Locustellidae Harpirhynchidae->Locustellidae Meliphagidae Meliphagidae Harpirhynchidae->Meliphagidae Muscicapidae Muscicapidae Harpirhynchidae->Muscicapidae Odontophoridae Odontophoridae Harpirhynchidae->Odontophoridae Paradisaeidae Paradisaeidae Harpirhynchidae->Paradisaeidae Paridae Paridae Harpirhynchidae->Paridae Podargidae Podargidae Harpirhynchidae->Podargidae Regulidae Regulidae Harpirhynchidae->Regulidae Sittidae Sittidae Harpirhynchidae->Sittidae Strigidae Strigidae Harpirhynchidae->Strigidae Sylviidae Sylviidae Harpirhynchidae->Sylviidae Timaliidae Timaliidae Harpirhynchidae->Timaliidae Trochilidae Trochilidae Harpirhynchidae->Trochilidae Hemisarcoptidae Hemisarcoptidae Hemisarcoptidae->Pinaceae Hemisarcoptidae->Arecaceae Hemisarcoptidae->Diaspididae Hemisarcoptidae->Diaspididae Ichneumonidae Ichneumonidae Hemisarcoptidae->Ichneumonidae Histiostomatidae Histiostomatidae Histiostomatidae->Formicidae Histiostomatidae->Curculionidae Histiostomatidae->Polyporaceae Histiostomatidae->Carabidae Histiostomatidae->Phasianidae Histiostomatidae->Fabaceae Histiostomatidae->Asparagaceae Histiostomatidae->Arecaceae Histiostomatidae->Bromeliaceae Histiostomatidae->Cucurbitaceae Histiostomatidae->Histeridae Histiostomatidae->Orchidaceae Histiostomatidae->Sarraceniaceae Histiostomatidae->Spirobolidae Histiostomatidae->Araceae Histiostomatidae->Amaryllidaceae Histiostomatidae->Dryophthoridae Histiostomatidae->Scarabaeidae Histiostomatidae->Passalidae Histiostomatidae->Megachilidae Histiostomatidae->Solanaceae Histiostomatidae->Canidae Histiostomatidae->Apiaceae Histiostomatidae->Ichneumonidae Agaricaceae Agaricaceae Histiostomatidae->Agaricaceae Agriolimacidae Agriolimacidae Histiostomatidae->Agriolimacidae Histiostomatidae->Brassicaceae Histiostomatidae->Cannabaceae Chrysomelidae Chrysomelidae Histiostomatidae->Chrysomelidae Ciconiidae Ciconiidae Histiostomatidae->Ciconiidae Cimicidae Cimicidae Histiostomatidae->Cimicidae Coelopidae Coelopidae Histiostomatidae->Coelopidae Crambidae Crambidae Histiostomatidae->Crambidae Fanniidae Fanniidae Histiostomatidae->Fanniidae Halictidae Halictidae Histiostomatidae->Halictidae Heliconiaceae Heliconiaceae Histiostomatidae->Heliconiaceae Muscidae Muscidae Histiostomatidae->Muscidae Parkinsoniidae Parkinsoniidae Histiostomatidae->Parkinsoniidae Psathyrellaceae Psathyrellaceae Histiostomatidae->Psathyrellaceae Histiostomatidae->Soricidae Staphylinidae Staphylinidae Histiostomatidae->Staphylinidae Syrphidae Syrphidae Histiostomatidae->Syrphidae Talpidae Talpidae Histiostomatidae->Talpidae Hydrachnidae Hydrachnidae Belostomatidae Belostomatidae Hydrachnidae->Belostomatidae Hydryphantidae Hydryphantidae Hydryphantidae->Culicidae Chloroperlidae Chloroperlidae Hydryphantidae->Chloroperlidae Hydrometridae Hydrometridae Hydryphantidae->Hydrometridae Hygrobatidae Hygrobatidae Hygrobatidae->Brassicaceae Hypoderatidae Hypoderatidae Hypoderatidae->Apodidae Falconidae Falconidae Hypoderatidae->Falconidae Hystrichonyssidae Hystrichonyssidae Hystricidae Hystricidae Hystrichonyssidae->Hystricidae Ixodidae Ixodidae Ixodidae->Asteraceae Ixodidae->Leporidae Ixodidae->Muridae Ixodidae->Muridae Ixodidae->Cricetidae Ixodidae->Cricetidae Ixodidae->Equidae Ixodidae->Equidae Ixodidae->Poaceae Ixodidae->Vespertilionidae Ixodidae->Icteridae Ixodidae->Mimidae Ixodidae->Mimidae Ixodidae->Passeridae Ixodidae->Phasianidae Ixodidae->Rallidae Ixodidae->Bovidae Ixodidae->Bovidae Ixodidae->Cervidae Ixodidae->Columbidae Ixodidae->Erinaceidae Ixodidae->Erinaceidae Ixodidae->Geomyidae Ixodidae->Hominidae Ixodidae->Hominidae Ixodidae->Sciuridae Ixodidae->Sciuridae Ixodidae->Suidae Ixodidae->Suidae Ixodidae->Camelidae Ixodidae->Corvidae Ixodidae->Pteropodidae Ixodidae->Viperidae Ixodidae->Lamiaceae Ixodidae->Caviidae Ixodidae->Passerellidae Ixodidae->Picidae Ixodidae->Turdidae Ixodidae->Molossidae Ixodidae->Canidae Ixodidae->Canidae Ixodidae->Rhinolophidae Ixodidae->Dasypodidae Ixodidae->Felidae Ixodidae->Ursidae Ixodidae->Ursidae Ixodidae->Vireonidae Ixodidae->Alcidae Ixodidae->Colubridae Ixodidae->Psammophiidae Ixodidae->Sturnidae Ixodidae->Anatidae Ixodidae->Cercopithecidae Ixodidae->Mustelidae Ixodidae->Tupaiidae Ixodidae->Cardinalidae Ixodidae->Cuculidae Ixodidae->Muscicapidae Ixodidae->Odontophoridae Ixodidae->Paridae Ixodidae->Fanniidae Ixodidae->Soricidae Ixodidae->Hystricidae Herpestidae Herpestidae Ixodidae->Herpestidae Ixodidae->Herpestidae Pythonidae Pythonidae Ixodidae->Pythonidae Ixodidae->Pythonidae Zalmoxidae Zalmoxidae Ixodidae->Zalmoxidae Ixodidae->Zalmoxidae Agamidae Agamidae Ixodidae->Agamidae Alligatoridae Alligatoridae Ixodidae->Alligatoridae Boidae Boidae Ixodidae->Boidae Bradypodidae Bradypodidae Ixodidae->Bradypodidae Bucerotidae Bucerotidae Ixodidae->Bucerotidae Bufonidae Bufonidae Ixodidae->Bufonidae Calomyscidae Calomyscidae Ixodidae->Calomyscidae Chionidae Chionidae Ixodidae->Chionidae Cuniculidae Cuniculidae Ixodidae->Cuniculidae Dasyproctidae Dasyproctidae Ixodidae->Dasyproctidae Didelphidae Didelphidae Ixodidae->Didelphidae Dipodidae Dipodidae Ixodidae->Dipodidae Echimyidae Echimyidae Ixodidae->Echimyidae Elapidae Elapidae Ixodidae->Elapidae Elephantidae Elephantidae Ixodidae->Elephantidae Erethizontidae Erethizontidae Ixodidae->Erethizontidae Eupleridae Eupleridae Ixodidae->Eupleridae Geoemydidae Geoemydidae Ixodidae->Geoemydidae Gerrhosauridae Gerrhosauridae Ixodidae->Gerrhosauridae Iguanidae Iguanidae Ixodidae->Iguanidae Macropodidae Macropodidae Ixodidae->Macropodidae Macroscelididae Macroscelididae Ixodidae->Macroscelididae Manidae Manidae Ixodidae->Manidae Megalonychidae Megalonychidae Ixodidae->Megalonychidae Mephitidae Mephitidae Ixodidae->Mephitidae Miniopteridae Miniopteridae Ixodidae->Miniopteridae Myrmecophagidae Myrmecophagidae Ixodidae->Myrmecophagidae Nesomyidae Nesomyidae Ixodidae->Nesomyidae Ochotonidae Ochotonidae Ixodidae->Ochotonidae Ornithorhynchidae Ornithorhynchidae Ixodidae->Ornithorhynchidae Peramelidae Peramelidae Ixodidae->Peramelidae Phrynosomatidae Phrynosomatidae Ixodidae->Phrynosomatidae Pittidae Pittidae Ixodidae->Pittidae Procyonidae Procyonidae Ixodidae->Procyonidae Pycnonotidae Pycnonotidae Ixodidae->Pycnonotidae Ramphastidae Ramphastidae Ixodidae->Ramphastidae Rhinocerotidae Rhinocerotidae Ixodidae->Rhinocerotidae Scincidae Scincidae Ixodidae->Scincidae Spheniscidae Spheniscidae Ixodidae->Spheniscidae Sphenodontidae Sphenodontidae Ixodidae->Sphenodontidae Tachyglossidae Tachyglossidae Ixodidae->Tachyglossidae Tapiridae Tapiridae Ixodidae->Tapiridae Tayassuidae Tayassuidae Ixodidae->Tayassuidae Teiidae Teiidae Ixodidae->Teiidae Tenrecidae Tenrecidae Ixodidae->Tenrecidae Testudinidae Testudinidae Ixodidae->Testudinidae Thryonomyidae Thryonomyidae Ixodidae->Thryonomyidae Tinamidae Tinamidae Ixodidae->Tinamidae Tragulidae Tragulidae Ixodidae->Tragulidae Varanidae Varanidae Ixodidae->Varanidae Viverridae Viverridae Ixodidae->Viverridae Vombatidae Vombatidae Ixodidae->Vombatidae Ixodorhynchidae Ixodorhynchidae Ixodorhynchidae->Vespertilionidae Ixodorhynchidae->Colubridae Ixodorhynchidae->Boidae Kramerellidae Kramerellidae Kramerellidae->Strigidae Labidostommatidae Labidostommatidae Labidostommatidae->Fagaceae Labidostommatidae->Sciuridae Labidostommatidae->Rosaceae Laelapidae Laelapidae Laelapidae->Formicidae Laelapidae->Leporidae Laelapidae->Muridae Laelapidae->Pinaceae Laelapidae->Fagaceae Laelapidae->Salicaceae Laelapidae->Sphagnaceae Laelapidae->Cricetidae Laelapidae->Poaceae Laelapidae->Sciuridae Laelapidae->Suidae Laelapidae->Magnoliaceae Laelapidae->Parulidae Laelapidae->Lemuridae Laelapidae->Scarabaeidae Laelapidae->Passalidae Laelapidae->Soricidae Buthidae Buthidae Laelapidae->Buthidae Laminosioptidae Laminosioptidae Procellariidae Procellariidae Laminosioptidae->Procellariidae Lebertiidae Lebertiidae Lebertiidae->Brassicaceae Leeuwenhoekiidae Leeuwenhoekiidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Asteraceae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Cricetidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Vespertilionidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Mormoopidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Dasypodidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Cuculidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Bufonidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Bufonidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Teiidae Ambystomatidae Ambystomatidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Ambystomatidae Craugastoridae Craugastoridae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Craugastoridae Eleutherodactylidae Eleutherodactylidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Eleutherodactylidae Eublepharidae Eublepharidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Eublepharidae Gekkonidae Gekkonidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Gekkonidae Heteromyidae Heteromyidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Heteromyidae Hylidae Hylidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Hylidae Leptodactylidae Leptodactylidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Leptodactylidae Phyllomedusidae Phyllomedusidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Phyllomedusidae Plethodontidae Plethodontidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Plethodontidae Ranidae Ranidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Ranidae Scaphiopodidae Scaphiopodidae Leeuwenhoekiidae->Scaphiopodidae Limnesiidae Limnesiidae Typhaceae Typhaceae Limnesiidae->Typhaceae Limnocharidae Limnocharidae Gerridae Gerridae Limnocharidae->Gerridae Listrophoridae Listrophoridae Listrophoridae->Cricetidae Lordalycidae Lordalycidae Lordalycidae->Sphagnaceae Lordalycidae->Spheniscidae Macrochelidae Macrochelidae Macrochelidae->Asteraceae Macrochelidae->Formicidae Macrochelidae->Muridae Macrochelidae->Trogidae Macrochelidae->Fagaceae Macrochelidae->Cupressaceae Macrochelidae->Equidae Macrochelidae->Malvaceae Macrochelidae->Phasianidae Macrochelidae->Fabaceae Macrochelidae->Bovidae Macrochelidae->Cucurbitaceae Macrochelidae->Ericaceae Macrochelidae->Histeridae Macrochelidae->Araceae Macrochelidae->Dryophthoridae Macrochelidae->Scarabaeidae Macrochelidae->Passalidae Macrochelidae->Iridaceae Macrochelidae->Solanaceae Macrochelidae->Canidae Macrochelidae->Geotrupidae Macrochelidae->Fanniidae Macrochelidae->Staphylinidae Macrochelidae->Apocynaceae Macrochelidae->Araliaceae Macrochelidae->Hydrangeaceae Pentatomidae Pentatomidae Macrochelidae->Pentatomidae Proteaceae Proteaceae Macrochelidae->Proteaceae Macrochelidae->Viburnaceae Macrodinychidae Macrodinychidae Macrodinychidae->Formicidae Macrodinychidae->Formicidae Burseraceae Burseraceae Macrodinychidae->Burseraceae Macronyssidae Macronyssidae Macronyssidae->Muridae Macronyssidae->Muridae Macronyssidae->Tyrannidae Macronyssidae->Tyrannidae Macronyssidae->Cricetidae Macronyssidae->Cricetidae Macronyssidae->Vespertilionidae Macronyssidae->Vespertilionidae Macronyssidae->Bombycillidae Macronyssidae->Hirundinidae Macronyssidae->Icteridae Macronyssidae->Icteridae Macronyssidae->Mimidae Macronyssidae->Passeridae Macronyssidae->Phasianidae Macronyssidae->Phasianidae Macronyssidae->Columbidae Macronyssidae->Hominidae Macronyssidae->Sciuridae Macronyssidae->Nycteridae Macronyssidae->Phyllostomidae Macronyssidae->Passerellidae Macronyssidae->Passerellidae Macronyssidae->Picidae Macronyssidae->Turdidae Macronyssidae->Apodidae Macronyssidae->Molossidae Macronyssidae->Felidae Macronyssidae->Vireonidae Macronyssidae->Colubridae Macronyssidae->Sturnidae Macronyssidae->Sturnidae Macronyssidae->Mustelidae Macronyssidae->Cuculidae Macronyssidae->Strigidae Macronyssidae->Soricidae Macronyssidae->Pythonidae Macronyssidae->Boidae Macronyssidae->Didelphidae Macronyssidae->Echimyidae Macronyssidae->Scincidae Macronyssidae->Teiidae Anguidae Anguidae Macronyssidae->Anguidae Megalaimidae Megalaimidae Macronyssidae->Megalaimidae Thyropteridae Thyropteridae Macronyssidae->Thyropteridae Melicharidae Melicharidae Melicharidae->Erebidae Melicharidae->Formicidae Melicharidae->Muridae Melicharidae->Pinaceae Melicharidae->Fagaceae Melicharidae->Myrtaceae Melicharidae->Cupressaceae Melicharidae->Curculionidae Melicharidae->Equidae Melicharidae->Poaceae Melicharidae->Fabaceae Melicharidae->Bovidae Melicharidae->Suidae Melicharidae->Bromeliaceae Melicharidae->Cucurbitaceae Melicharidae->Ericaceae Melicharidae->Rosaceae Melicharidae->Verbenaceae Melicharidae->Noctuidae Melicharidae->Caryophyllaceae Melicharidae->Oleaceae Melicharidae->Crambidae Melicharidae->Psathyrellaceae Melicharidae->Ornithorhynchidae Pyralidae Pyralidae Melicharidae->Pyralidae Stereocaulaceae Stereocaulaceae Melicharidae->Stereocaulaceae Microtrombidiidae Microtrombidiidae Microtrombidiidae->Fagaceae Microtrombidiidae->Myrtaceae Myobiidae Myobiidae Myobiidae->Muridae Myobiidae->Muridae Myobiidae->Cricetidae Myobiidae->Soricidae Nanorchestidae Nanorchestidae Nanorchestidae->Betulaceae Nanorchestidae->Leporidae Nanorchestidae->Pinaceae Nanorchestidae->Cupressaceae Nanorchestidae->Salicaceae Nanorchestidae->Sphagnaceae Nanorchestidae->Equidae Nanorchestidae->Fabaceae Nanorchestidae->Spheniscidae Neothyridae Neothyridae Neothyridae->Poaceae Nuttalliellidae Nuttalliellidae Nuttalliellidae->Herpestidae Oehserchestidae Oehserchestidae Oehserchestidae->Pinaceae Oenosandridae Oenosandridae Oenosandridae->Agamidae Oenosandridae->Iguanidae Ologamasidae Ologamasidae Ologamasidae->Betulaceae Ologamasidae->Formicidae Ologamasidae->Pinaceae Ologamasidae->Fagaceae Ologamasidae->Myrtaceae Ologamasidae->Cupressaceae Ologamasidae->Salicaceae Ologamasidae->Cricetidae Ologamasidae->Curculionidae Ologamasidae->Poaceae Ologamasidae->Carabidae Ologamasidae->Cervidae Ologamasidae->Sciuridae Ologamasidae->Cyperaceae Ologamasidae->Ericaceae Ologamasidae->Rosaceae Ologamasidae->Rutaceae Ologamasidae->Cerambycidae Ologamasidae->Apidae Ologamasidae->Apiaceae Ologamasidae->Mustelidae Ologamasidae->Soricidae Ologamasidae->Talpidae Ologamasidae->Dipodidae Ologamasidae->Heteromyidae Ologamasidae->Burseraceae Ologamasidae->Balsaminaceae Castoridae Castoridae Ologamasidae->Castoridae Delesseriaceae Delesseriaceae Ologamasidae->Delesseriaceae Gesneriaceae Gesneriaceae Ologamasidae->Gesneriaceae Ologamasidae->Lauraceae Nitidulidae Nitidulidae Ologamasidae->Nitidulidae Opilioacaridae Opilioacaridae Opilioacaridae->Pinaceae Cordiaceae Cordiaceae Opilioacaridae->Cordiaceae Oplitidae Oplitidae Oplitidae->Formicidae Oplitidae->Myrtaceae Oplitidae->Poaceae Oxidae Oxidae Oxidae->Typhaceae Pachylaelapidae Pachylaelapidae Pachylaelapidae->Pinaceae Pachylaelapidae->Trogidae Pachylaelapidae->Cupressaceae Pachylaelapidae->Cricetidae Pachylaelapidae->Rosaceae Pachylaelapidae->Amaryllidaceae Bryaceae Bryaceae Pachylaelapidae->Bryaceae Parasitidae Parasitidae Parasitidae->Asteraceae Parasitidae->Betulaceae Parasitidae->Formicidae Parasitidae->Leporidae Parasitidae->Pinaceae Parasitidae->Fagaceae Parasitidae->Cupressaceae Parasitidae->Salicaceae Parasitidae->Sapindaceae Parasitidae->Cricetidae Parasitidae->Curculionidae Parasitidae->Equidae Parasitidae->Poaceae Parasitidae->Polyporaceae Parasitidae->Fabaceae Parasitidae->Bovidae Parasitidae->Sciuridae Parasitidae->Suidae Parasitidae->Asparagaceae Parasitidae->Bromeliaceae Parasitidae->Cactaceae Parasitidae->Cucurbitaceae Parasitidae->Ericaceae Parasitidae->Histeridae Parasitidae->Liliaceae Parasitidae->Orchidaceae Parasitidae->Parulidae Parasitidae->Rosaceae Parasitidae->Araceae Parasitidae->Passalidae Parasitidae->Iridaceae Parasitidae->Solanaceae Parasitidae->Tingidae Parasitidae->Araucariaceae Parasitidae->Apiaceae Parasitidae->Oleaceae Parasitidae->Mustelidae Parasitidae->Agaricaceae Parasitidae->Brassicaceae Parasitidae->Heliconiaceae Parasitidae->Staphylinidae Parasitidae->Ornithorhynchidae Parasitidae->Proteaceae Parasitidae->Stereocaulaceae Aplodontiidae Aplodontiidae Parasitidae->Aplodontiidae Begoniaceae Begoniaceae Parasitidae->Begoniaceae Cryptocercidae Cryptocercidae Parasitidae->Cryptocercidae Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalaceae Parasitidae->Dichapetalaceae Dytiscidae Dytiscidae Parasitidae->Dytiscidae Fucaceae Fucaceae Parasitidae->Fucaceae Lumbricidae Lumbricidae Parasitidae->Lumbricidae Primulaceae Primulaceae Parasitidae->Primulaceae Psychodidae Psychodidae Parasitidae->Psychodidae Sphaeroceridae Sphaeroceridae Parasitidae->Sphaeroceridae Parholaspididae Parholaspididae Parholaspididae->Pinaceae Parholaspididae->Fagaceae Parholaspididae->Myrtaceae Parholaspididae->Cupressaceae Parholaspididae->Sapindaceae Parholaspididae->Sphagnaceae Parholaspididae->Poaceae Parholaspididae->Equisetaceae Parholaspididae->Ericaceae Parholaspididae->Lamiaceae Parholaspididae->Orchidaceae Parholaspididae->Rosaceae Parholaspididae->Theaceae Parholaspididae->Tingidae Parholaspididae->Delesseriaceae Parholaspididae->Primulaceae Penthaleidae Penthaleidae Penthaleidae->Pinaceae Penthaleidae->Poaceae Penthaleidae->Apiaceae Penthalodidae Penthalodidae Penthalodidae->Fagaceae Penthalodidae->Orchidaceae Podapolipidae Podapolipidae Podapolipidae->Asteraceae Podapolipidae->Carabidae Acrididae Acrididae Podapolipidae->Acrididae Podocinidae Podocinidae Podocinidae->Pinaceae Podocinidae->Fagaceae Podocinidae->Myrtaceae Podocinidae->Sphagnaceae Podocinidae->Poaceae Podocinidae->Mimidae Podocinidae->Magnoliaceae Podocinidae->Passalidae Polyaspididae Polyaspididae Polyaspididae->Nothofagaceae Polyaspididae->Podocarpaceae Pomerantziidae Pomerantziidae Pomerantziidae->Poaceae Proctophyllodidae Proctophyllodidae Proctophyllodidae->Bombycillidae Proctophyllodidae->Icteridae Proctophyllodidae->Passeridae Proctophyllodidae->Corvidae Proctophyllodidae->Parulidae Proctophyllodidae->Turdidae Proctophyllodidae->Fringillidae Proctophyllodidae->Cardinalidae Prodinychidae Prodinychidae Prodinychidae->Passalidae Promegistidae Promegistidae Promegistidae->Formicidae Psorergatidae Psorergatidae Psorergatidae->Muridae Psorergatidae->Cricetidae Psorergatidae->Vespertilionidae Psorergatidae->Bovidae Psorergatidae->Sciuridae Psorergatidae->Emballonuridae Psorergatidae->Phyllostomidae Psorergatidae->Molossidae Psorergatidae->Soricidae Gliridae Gliridae Psorergatidae->Gliridae Psoroptidae Psoroptidae Psoroptidae->Lemuridae Psoroptidae->Mustelidae Pterolichidae Pterolichidae Pterolichidae->Hirundinidae Pterolichidae->Phasianidae Pterolichidae->Rallidae Pterolichidae->Charadriidae Pterolichidae->Vireonidae Pteronyssidae Pteronyssidae Pteronyssidae->Anatidae Pterygosomatidae Pterygosomatidae Pterygosomatidae->Iguanidae Crotaphytidae Crotaphytidae Pterygosomatidae->Crotaphytidae Phyllodactylidae Phyllodactylidae Pterygosomatidae->Phyllodactylidae Pyemotidae Pyemotidae Pyemotidae->Fabaceae Pygmephoridae Pygmephoridae Pygmephoridae->Sapindaceae Pygmephoridae->Suidae Saxifragaceae Saxifragaceae Pygmephoridae->Saxifragaceae Pyroglyphidae Pyroglyphidae Pyroglyphidae->Passeridae Raphignathidae Raphignathidae Raphignathidae->Asteraceae Raphignathidae->Pinaceae Raphignathidae->Salicaceae Raphignathidae->Scolopacidae Raphignathidae->Arecaceae Raphignathidae->Rosaceae Rectijanuidae Rectijanuidae Rectijanuidae->Anatidae Rhagidiidae Rhagidiidae Rhagidiidae->Asteraceae Rhagidiidae->Betulaceae Rhagidiidae->Formicidae Rhagidiidae->Pinaceae Rhagidiidae->Fagaceae Rhagidiidae->Cupressaceae Rhagidiidae->Salicaceae Rhagidiidae->Sapindaceae Rhagidiidae->Equidae Rhagidiidae->Fabaceae Rhagidiidae->Sciuridae Rhagidiidae->Parulidae Rhagidiidae->Rosaceae Rhagidiidae->Passalidae Rhagidiidae->Spheniscidae Salticidae Salticidae Rhagidiidae->Salticidae Rhinonyssidae Rhinonyssidae Rhinonyssidae->Tyrannidae Rhinonyssidae->Bombycillidae Rhinonyssidae->Hirundinidae Rhinonyssidae->Icteridae Rhinonyssidae->Mimidae Rhinonyssidae->Passeridae Rhinonyssidae->Phasianidae Rhinonyssidae->Rallidae Rhinonyssidae->Accipitridae Rhinonyssidae->Ardeidae Rhinonyssidae->Columbidae Rhinonyssidae->Laridae Rhinonyssidae->Parulidae Rhinonyssidae->Charadriidae Rhinonyssidae->Passerellidae Rhinonyssidae->Picidae Rhinonyssidae->Turdidae Rhinonyssidae->Apodidae Rhinonyssidae->Fringillidae Rhinonyssidae->Psittacidae Rhinonyssidae->Troglodytidae Rhinonyssidae->Vireonidae Rhinonyssidae->Sturnidae Rhinonyssidae->Anatidae Rhinonyssidae->Caprimulgidae Rhinonyssidae->Cardinalidae Rhinonyssidae->Coliidae Rhinonyssidae->Cuculidae Rhinonyssidae->Emberizidae Rhinonyssidae->Estrildidae Rhinonyssidae->Muscicapidae Rhinonyssidae->Paradisaeidae Rhinonyssidae->Regulidae Rhinonyssidae->Trochilidae Rhinonyssidae->Pycnonotidae Rhinonyssidae->Megalaimidae Acrocephalidae Acrocephalidae Rhinonyssidae->Acrocephalidae Alcedinidae Alcedinidae Rhinonyssidae->Alcedinidae Cathartidae Cathartidae Rhinonyssidae->Cathartidae Cisticolidae Cisticolidae Rhinonyssidae->Cisticolidae Dicruridae Dicruridae Rhinonyssidae->Dicruridae Laniidae Laniidae Rhinonyssidae->Laniidae Malaconotidae Malaconotidae Rhinonyssidae->Malaconotidae Meropidae Meropidae Rhinonyssidae->Meropidae Monarchidae Monarchidae Rhinonyssidae->Monarchidae Motacillidae Motacillidae Rhinonyssidae->Motacillidae Nectariniidae Nectariniidae Rhinonyssidae->Nectariniidae Oriolidae Oriolidae Rhinonyssidae->Oriolidae Platysteiridae Platysteiridae Rhinonyssidae->Platysteiridae Ploceidae Ploceidae Rhinonyssidae->Ploceidae Podicipedidae Podicipedidae Rhinonyssidae->Podicipedidae Thraupidae Thraupidae Rhinonyssidae->Thraupidae Tytonidae Tytonidae Rhinonyssidae->Tytonidae Viduidae Viduidae Rhinonyssidae->Viduidae Rhodacaridae Rhodacaridae Rhodacaridae->Pinaceae Rhodacaridae->Fagaceae Rhodacaridae->Myrtaceae Rhodacaridae->Cupressaceae Rhodacaridae->Salicaceae Rhodacaridae->Poaceae Rhodacaridae->Fabaceae Rhodacaridae->Equisetaceae Rhodacaridae->Rosaceae Rhodacaridae->Verbenaceae Rhodacaridae->Musaceae Rhodacaridae->Passalidae Rhodacaridae->Rubiaceae Rhodacaridae->Lauraceae Rhodacaridae->Begoniaceae Rhodacaridae->Primulaceae Hypericaceae Hypericaceae Rhodacaridae->Hypericaceae Rotundabaloghiidae Rotundabaloghiidae Rotundabaloghiidae->Formicidae Rotundabaloghiidae->Moraceae Rotundabaloghiidae->Myrtaceae Rotundabaloghiidae->Poaceae Dicksoniaceae Dicksoniaceae Rotundabaloghiidae->Dicksoniaceae Sarcoptidae Sarcoptidae Sarcoptidae->Cricetidae Sarcoptidae->Hominidae Sarcoptidae->Phyllostomidae Scutacaridae Scutacaridae Scutacaridae->Formicidae Scutacaridae->Muridae Scutacaridae->Pinaceae Scutacaridae->Cupressaceae Scutacaridae->Sphagnaceae Scutacaridae->Equidae Scutacaridae->Fabaceae Scutacaridae->Rosaceae Scutacaridae->Passalidae Scutacaridae->Hydrophilidae Scutacaridae->Halictidae Heteroceridae Heteroceridae Scutacaridae->Heteroceridae Sejidae Sejidae Sejidae->Cerambycidae Smarididae Smarididae Smarididae->Leporidae Smarididae->Cupressaceae Smarididae->Salicaceae Smarididae->Oleaceae Spelaeorhynchidae Spelaeorhynchidae Spelaeorhynchidae->Phyllostomidae Sperchontidae Sperchontidae Sperchontidae->Brassicaceae Spinturnicidae Spinturnicidae Spinturnicidae->Vespertilionidae Spinturnicidae->Mormoopidae Spinturnicidae->Phyllostomidae Spinturnicidae->Pteropodidae Spinturnicidae->Rhinolophidae Spinturnicidae->Alcidae Natalidae Natalidae Spinturnicidae->Natalidae Stigmaeidae Stigmaeidae Stigmaeidae->Leporidae Stigmaeidae->Muridae Stigmaeidae->Pinaceae Stigmaeidae->Fagaceae Stigmaeidae->Sapindaceae Stigmaeidae->Sphagnaceae Stigmaeidae->Equidae Stigmaeidae->Magnoliaceae Stigmaeidae->Rosaceae Stigmaeidae->Noctuidae Stigmaeidae->Molossidae Stigmaeidae->Cannabaceae Stigmaeidae->Parkinsoniidae Celastraceae Celastraceae Stigmaeidae->Celastraceae Syringobiidae Syringobiidae Syringobiidae->Icteridae Syringophilidae Syringophilidae Syringophilidae->Icteridae Syringophilidae->Mimidae Syringophilidae->Passeridae Syringophilidae->Phasianidae Syringophilidae->Parulidae Syringophilidae->Fringillidae Syringophilidae->Strigidae Tarsocheylidae Tarsocheylidae Tarsocheylidae->Pinaceae Tarsocheylidae->Poaceae Tarsonemidae Tarsonemidae Tarsonemidae->Asteraceae Tarsonemidae->Formicidae Tarsonemidae->Pinaceae Tarsonemidae->Salicaceae Tarsonemidae->Malvaceae Tarsonemidae->Poaceae Tarsonemidae->Orchidaceae Tarsonemidae->Rosaceae Tarsonemidae->Theaceae Tarsonemidae->Troglodytidae Tarsonemidae->Lauraceae Tarsonemidae->Pseudococcidae Camaenidae Camaenidae Tarsonemidae->Camaenidae Tenuipalpidae Tenuipalpidae Tenuipalpidae->Pinaceae Tenuipalpidae->Cupressaceae Tenuipalpidae->Salicaceae Tenuipalpidae->Sapindaceae Tenuipalpidae->Poaceae Tenuipalpidae->Altingiaceae Tenuipalpidae->Fabaceae Tenuipalpidae->Suidae Tenuipalpidae->Arecaceae Tenuipalpidae->Bromeliaceae Tenuipalpidae->Caprifoliaceae Tenuipalpidae->Ericaceae Tenuipalpidae->Orchidaceae Tenuipalpidae->Rosaceae Tenuipalpidae->Amaryllidaceae Tenuipalpidae->Solanaceae Tenuipalpidae->Heliconiaceae Tenuipalpidae->Cephalotaxaceae Tenuipalpidae->Euphorbiaceae Tenuipalpidae->Rhamnaceae Tenuipalpidae->Podocarpaceae Tenuipalpidae->Adelgidae Ebenaceae Ebenaceae Tenuipalpidae->Ebenaceae Tenuipalpidae->Plantaginaceae Terpnacaridae Terpnacaridae Terpnacaridae->Salicaceae Trachytidae Trachytidae Trachytidae->Leporidae Trachytidae->Trogidae Trachytidae->Fagaceae Trachytidae->Sapindaceae Trematuridae Trematuridae Trematuridae->Pinaceae Trematuridae->Salicaceae Trematuridae->Sapindaceae Trematuridae->Sciuridae Trematuridae->Arecaceae Trematuridae->Dryophthoridae Trematuridae->Euphorbiaceae Lymexylidae Lymexylidae Trematuridae->Lymexylidae Trigonuropodidae Trigonuropodidae Trigonuropodidae->Fabaceae Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpaceae Trigonuropodidae->Dipterocarpaceae Trombiculidae Trombiculidae Trombiculidae->Formicidae Trombiculidae->Leporidae Trombiculidae->Muridae Trombiculidae->Cricetidae Trombiculidae->Cricetidae Trombiculidae->Vespertilionidae Trombiculidae->Carabidae Trombiculidae->Mimidae Trombiculidae->Phasianidae Trombiculidae->Scolopacidae Trombiculidae->Cervidae Trombiculidae->Sciuridae Trombiculidae->Emballonuridae Trombiculidae->Mormoopidae Trombiculidae->Phyllostomidae Trombiculidae->Parulidae Trombiculidae->Passerellidae Trombiculidae->Picidae Trombiculidae->Turdidae Trombiculidae->Molossidae Trombiculidae->Canidae Trombiculidae->Dasypodidae Trombiculidae->Troglodytidae Trombiculidae->Colubridae Trombiculidae->Tupaiidae Trombiculidae->Cardinalidae Trombiculidae->Paridae Trombiculidae->Soricidae Trombiculidae->Dasyproctidae Trombiculidae->Didelphidae Trombiculidae->Dipodidae Trombiculidae->Echimyidae Trombiculidae->Iguanidae Trombiculidae->Phrynosomatidae Trombiculidae->Scincidae Trombiculidae->Heteromyidae Emydidae Emydidae Trombiculidae->Emydidae Hipposideridae Hipposideridae Trombiculidae->Hipposideridae Trombidiidae Trombidiidae Trombidiidae->Leporidae Trombidiidae->Tipulidae Tydeidae Tydeidae Tydeidae->Betulaceae Tydeidae->Formicidae Tydeidae->Muridae Tydeidae->Pinaceae Tydeidae->Tyrannidae Tydeidae->Fagaceae Tydeidae->Moraceae Tydeidae->Cupressaceae Tydeidae->Sapindaceae Tydeidae->Sapindaceae Tydeidae->Malvaceae Tydeidae->Poaceae Tydeidae->Altingiaceae Tydeidae->Arecaceae Tydeidae->Caprifoliaceae Tydeidae->Ericaceae Tydeidae->Juglandaceae Tydeidae->Parulidae Tydeidae->Rosaceae Tydeidae->Buxaceae Tydeidae->Scrophulariaceae Tydeidae->Theaceae Tydeidae->Troglodytidae Tydeidae->Cannabaceae Tydeidae->Amaranthaceae Tydeidae->Aphrophoridae Tydeidae->Aquifoliaceae Unionicolidae Unionicolidae Unionicolidae->Typhaceae Anatinellidae Anatinellidae Unionicolidae->Anatinellidae Nymphaeaceae Nymphaeaceae Unionicolidae->Nymphaeaceae Unionidae Unionidae Unionicolidae->Unionidae Uroactiniidae Uroactiniidae Uroactiniidae->Malvaceae Uroactiniidae->Thraupidae Urodinychidae Urodinychidae Urodinychidae->Sapindaceae Urodinychidae->Poaceae Urodinychidae->Sciuridae Urodinychidae->Arecaceae Urodinychidae->Nothofagaceae Urodinychidae->Cannabaceae Urodinychidae->Podocarpaceae Uropodidae Uropodidae Uropodidae->Asteraceae Uropodidae->Formicidae Uropodidae->Muridae Uropodidae->Pinaceae Uropodidae->Fagaceae Uropodidae->Cupressaceae Uropodidae->Sapindaceae Uropodidae->Sphagnaceae Uropodidae->Curculionidae Uropodidae->Equidae Uropodidae->Poaceae Uropodidae->Polyporaceae Uropodidae->Fabaceae Uropodidae->Bovidae Uropodidae->Sciuridae Uropodidae->Suidae Uropodidae->Asparagaceae Uropodidae->Arecaceae Uropodidae->Bromeliaceae Uropodidae->Equisetaceae Uropodidae->Ericaceae Uropodidae->Histeridae Uropodidae->Lamiaceae Uropodidae->Liliaceae Uropodidae->Magnoliaceae Uropodidae->Orchidaceae Uropodidae->Polygonaceae Uropodidae->Spirobolidae Uropodidae->Araceae Uropodidae->Amaryllidaceae Uropodidae->Cerambycidae Uropodidae->Dryophthoridae Uropodidae->Musaceae Uropodidae->Scarabaeidae Uropodidae->Passalidae Uropodidae->Anacardiaceae Uropodidae->Iridaceae Uropodidae->Solanaceae Uropodidae->Theaceae Uropodidae->Araucariaceae Uropodidae->Nothofagaceae Uropodidae->Caryophyllaceae Uropodidae->Zingiberaceae Uropodidae->Apiaceae Uropodidae->Oleaceae Uropodidae->Erotylidae Uropodidae->Brassicaceae Uropodidae->Cannabaceae Uropodidae->Cimicidae Uropodidae->Staphylinidae Uropodidae->Apocynaceae Uropodidae->Lumbricidae Uropodidae->Amaranthaceae Uropodidae->Podocarpaceae Uropodidae->Camaenidae Uropodidae->Ebenaceae Uropodidae->Combretaceae Uropodidae->Meliaceae Anisopodidae Anisopodidae Uropodidae->Anisopodidae Bostrichidae Bostrichidae Uropodidae->Bostrichidae Brentidae Brentidae Uropodidae->Brentidae Cunoniaceae Cunoniaceae Uropodidae->Cunoniaceae Lecythidaceae Lecythidaceae Uropodidae->Lecythidaceae Leiodidae Leiodidae Uropodidae->Leiodidae Trogossitidae Trogossitidae Uropodidae->Trogossitidae Varroidae Varroidae Varroidae->Apidae Veigaiidae Veigaiidae Veigaiidae->Pinaceae Veigaiidae->Fagaceae Veigaiidae->Equidae Veigaiidae->Spirobolidae Veigaiidae->Tingidae Winterschmidtiidae Winterschmidtiidae Winterschmidtiidae->Juglandaceae Winterschmidtiidae->Rutaceae Winterschmidtiidae->Megachilidae Winterschmidtiidae->Ichneumonidae Winterschmidtiidae->Cannabaceae Winterschmidtiidae->Staphylinidae Winterschmidtiidae->Rhamnaceae Belidae Belidae Winterschmidtiidae->Belidae Crabronidae Crabronidae Winterschmidtiidae->Crabronidae Eumenidae Eumenidae Winterschmidtiidae->Eumenidae Vespidae Vespidae Winterschmidtiidae->Vespidae Xolalgidae Xolalgidae Xolalgidae->Anatidae Zerconidae Zerconidae Zerconidae->Formicidae Zerconidae->Pinaceae Zerconidae->Fagaceae Zerconidae->Cupressaceae Zerconidae->Salicaceae Zerconidae->Equisetaceae Zerconidae->Magnoliaceae Zerconidae->Spirobolidae

You can download the indexed dataset under review at indexed-interactions.csv. A tab-separated file can be found at indexed-interactions.tsv

Learn more about the structure of this download at GloBI website, by opening a GitHub issue, or by sending an email.

Another way to discover the dataset under review is by searching for it on the GloBI website.

Taxonomic Alignment

As part of the review, all names are aligned against various name catalogs (e.g., col, ncbi, discoverlife, gbif, itis, wfo, mdd, tpt, and pbdb). These alignments can help review name usage or aid in selecting of a suitable taxonomic name resource.

Sample of Name Alignments
providedName relationName resolvedCatalogName resolvedName
Dysdercus splendidus NONE col Dysdercus splendidus
Melanerpes formicivorus HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Melanerpes formicivorus
Laelaps stupkai NONE col Laelaps stupkai
Psorergates musculinus HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME col Psorergates musculinus
Distribution of Taxonomic Ranks of Aligned Names by Catalog. Names that were not aligned with a catalog are counted as NAs. So, the total number of unaligned names for a catalog will be listed in their NA row.
resolvedCatalogName resolvedRank count
col NA 1800
col class 9
col family 246
col genus 735
col infraorder 2
col kingdom 1
col order 29
col phylum 1
col species 3085
col subclass 1
col subfamily 1
col subgenus 52
col suborder 2
col subspecies 54
col subtribe 1
col superfamily 2
col superorder 1
col tribe 1
col variety 10
discoverlife NA 5936
discoverlife species 9
gbif NA 999
gbif class 10
gbif family 249
gbif genus 1034
gbif kingdom 1
gbif order 29
gbif phylum 1
gbif species 3594
gbif subspecies 62
gbif variety 16
itis NA 2211
itis class 9
itis division 1
itis family 247
itis genus 664
itis infraorder 1
itis kingdom 1
itis order 32
itis species 2735
itis subclass 2
itis subfamily 1
itis suborder 2
itis subphylum 1
itis subspecies 35
itis superfamily 3
itis superorder 1
itis variety 3
mdd NA 5945
ncbi NA 2323
ncbi clade 4
ncbi class 8
ncbi family 240
ncbi genus 833
ncbi infraorder 1
ncbi kingdom 1
ncbi order 30
ncbi species 2481
ncbi subclass 2
ncbi subfamily 2
ncbi subgenus 17
ncbi suborder 2
ncbi subphylum 1
ncbi subspecies 15
ncbi superfamily 2
ncbi superorder 1
ncbi varietas 2
pbdb NA 4603
pbdb class 9
pbdb family 156
pbdb genus 405
pbdb infraorder 3
pbdb kingdom 1
pbdb order 34
pbdb phylum 1
pbdb species 723
pbdb subclass 2
pbdb subfamily 3
pbdb suborder 2
pbdb subspecies 3
pbdb superclass 1
pbdb superfamily 1
pbdb superorder 1
pbdb tribe 1
pbdb unranked clade 8
tpt NA 3312
tpt family 44
tpt genus 151
tpt order 6
tpt species 2429
tpt specificepithet 2
tpt subspecificepithet 5
wfo NA 5167
wfo class 1
wfo family 29
wfo genus 278
wfo order 5
wfo species 456
wfo subspecies 9
wfo variety 7
Name relationship types per catalog. Name relationship type “NONE” means that a name was not recognized by the associated catalog. “SAME_AS” indicates either a “HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME” or “SYNONYM_OF” name relationship type. We recognize that “SYNONYM_OF” encompasses many types of nomenclatural synonymies (ICZN 1999) (e.g., junior synonym, senior synonyms).
resolvedCatalogName relationName count
col NONE 1822
col HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 3997
col SYNONYM_OF 895
discoverlife NONE 5975
discoverlife HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 9
discoverlife SYNONYM_OF 2
gbif NONE 1010
gbif HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 5079
gbif SYNONYM_OF 1270
itis NONE 2238
itis HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 3495
itis SYNONYM_OF 334
mdd NONE 5419
mdd HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 565
ncbi NONE 2336
ncbi SAME_AS 3461
ncbi SYNONYM_OF 227
pbdb NONE 4638
pbdb HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 1323
pbdb SYNONYM_OF 89
tpt NONE 3342
tpt HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 2715
tpt SYNONYM_OF 739
wfo NONE 5206
wfo HAS_ACCEPTED_NAME 708
wfo SYNONYM_OF 145
wfo HAS_UNCHECKED_NAME 75
List of Available Name Alignment Reports
catalog name alignment results
col associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
ncbi associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
discoverlife associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
gbif associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
itis associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
wfo associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
mdd associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
tpt associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)
pbdb associated names alignments (first 500, full csv/tsv)

Additional Reviews

Elton, Nomer, and other tools may have difficulties interpreting existing species interaction datasets. Or, they may misbehave, or otherwise show unexpected behavior. As part of the review process, detailed review notes are kept that document possibly misbehaving, or confused, review bots. An sample of review notes associated with this review can be found below.

First few lines in the review notes.
reviewDate reviewCommentType reviewComment
2024-04-17T03:25:25Z note target taxon name missing
2024-04-17T03:25:25Z note invalid date string [Mar-1926]
2024-04-17T03:25:25Z note invalid date string [Mar-1926]
2024-04-17T03:25:25Z note target taxon name missing

In addtion, you can find the most frequently occurring notes in the table below.

Most frequently occurring review notes, if any.
reviewComment count
target taxon name missing 19777
invalid date string [id-68] 152
invalid date string [DEC-1987] 98
invalid date string [OCT-1926] 74

For addition information on review notes, please have a look at the first 500 Review Notes or the download full csv or tsv archives.

GloBI Review Badge

As part of the review, a review badge is generated. This review badge can be included in webpages to indicate the review status of the dataset under review.

review review 💬 💬

Note that if the badge is green, no review notes were generated. If the badge is yellow, the review bots may need some help with interpreting the species interaction data.

GloBI Index Badge

If the dataset under review has been registered with GloBI, and has been succesfully indexed by GloBI, the GloBI Index Status Badge will turn green. This means that the dataset under review was indexed by GloBI and is available through GloBI services and derived data products.

Picture of a GloBI Index Badge

If you’d like to keep track of reviews or index status of the dataset under review, please visit GloBI’s dataset index 5 for badge examples.

Discussion

This review aims to provide a perspective on the dataset to aid in understanding of species interaction claims discovered. However, it is important to note that this review does not assess the quality of the dataset. Instead, it serves as an indication of the open-ness6 and FAIRness (Wilkinson et al. 2016; Trekels et al. 2023) of the dataset: to perform this review, the data was likely openly available, Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. The current Open-FAIR assessment is qualitative, and a more quantitative approach can be implemented with specified measurement units.

This report also showcases the reuse of machine-actionable (meta)data, something highly recommended by the FAIR Data Principles (Wilkinson et al. 2016). Making (meta)data machine-actionable enables more precise procesing by computers, enabling even naive review bots like Nomer and Elton to interpret the data effectively. This capability is crucial for not just automating the generation of reports, but also for facilitating seamless data exchanges, promoting interoperability.

Acknowledgements

We thank the many humans that created us and those who created and maintained the data, software and other intellectual resources that were used for producing this review. In addition, we are grateful for the natural resources providing the basis for these human and bot activities.

Author contributions

Nomer was responsible for name alignments. Elton carried out dataset extraction, and generated the review notes.

References

ICZN. 1999. “International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.” The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK. https://www.iczn.org/the-code/the-code-online/.
Poelen, Jorrit H., James D. Simons, and Chris J. Mungall. 2014. “Global Biotic Interactions: An Open Infrastructure to Share and Analyze Species-Interaction Datasets.” Ecological Informatics 24 (November): 148–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2014.08.005.
Trekels, Maarten, Debora Pignatari Drucker, José Augusto Salim, Jeff Ollerton, Jorrit Poelen, Filipi Miranda Soares, Max Rünzel, Muo Kasina, Quentin Groom, and Mariano Devoto. 2023. WorldFAIR Project (D10.1) Agriculture-related pollinator data standards use cases report.” Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8176978.
Wilkinson, Mark D., Michel Dumontier, IJsbrand Jan Aalbersberg, Gabrielle Appleton, Myles Axton, Arie Baak, Niklas Blomberg, et al. 2016. “The FAIR Guiding Principles for Scientific Data Management and Stewardship.” Scientific Data 3 (1). https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2016.18.